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Cell and Molecular Biology Exam 120:36IntroductionCell biology is reductionist.Cell TheoryAll organisms are composed of one or more cellThe cell is the structural unit of lifeCells arise from pre-existing cells by divisionBASIC PROPERTIES OF CELLSLife- the most basic propertyCan grow in culture for long expended periods of time.ComplexityCellular processes are highly regulatedCells from different species share similar:StructureCompositionMetabolic featuresCells Posses a Genetic ProgramGenes encode information to build the organismGenes encode information for cellular reproduction, activity and structure.
ProductionCells can reproduceEach daughter cell receives an exact copy of genetic instructionsCells Acquire & Utilize EnergyPhotosynthesis- provides fuel for all living organismsAnimal cells derive energy from products of photosynthesisGlucoseCells turn glucose into ATPCells Cary out a variety of chemical rxnsCells engage in mechanical activitiesCells are able to respond to stimuliCLASSES OF CELLSDistinguished by size and types of organellesProkaryotes3.7 billion years agosingle cellrelatively simpleEukaryotesHave organellesMore complex
Protists, animals, plantsCharacteristics Distinguishing Prokaryotes and EukaryotesGenetic MaterialPackaging: prokaryotes have a nucleoid and eukaryotes have a membrane-bound nucleusAmount: eukaryotes have more than prokaryotesForm: eukaryotes have many chromosomes made of DNA and proteins, while prokaryotes have single stranded circular DNACytoplasmEukaryotes have membrane bound organelles, and cytoskeletal proteins. Both have ribosomes, but differ in sizeReproductionEukaryotes divide by mitosis, prokaryotes divide by fissionLocomotionEukaryotes have cytoplasmic movement, cilia and flagella. Prokaryotes have flagella, but its only made of protein. In eukaryotes, flagella and cilia are made up of cytoskeletal