LITERATURE RECAPTypes of Text - general classificationCategories of Literature - manner of presentingthe textForms of Literature - structure/how it is writtenKindsGenres - similar elementsNARRATIVE, FICTIONAL PROSE CREATIVETEXTCategory → Form → TypeCATEGORIES■Narrative - tells a story■Descriptive - gives qualities/char ■Expository - expresses emotions/issues■Argumentative - defends a stand■Dramatic - acted/perf on stageCREATIVE- insight about human condition inartistic wayPROSE - sentence->parags; common langflow, no formal structure, ordinary languageFICTION - imagined facts that illustrates truthabt human life●Novel - long narrative divided tochapters●Short Story - narrative w/ 1 plot andimpression ●Plays/Drama - dran->to do; lengthy;tragedy-disaster and comedy-happyending●Legends - historical info abt culture; about origins ●Folktales - traditional narrative; handeddown by mouth; anon●Fable - special type of folktale;animal/inanimate objects as chars●Myths - similar to legends; revolvearound gods and heroes; explainsphenoms●Anecdotes - product of writer’s imag;bring out lessons to reader●Parables - biblical stories; moral attitudeNON-FICTION - factual and real-life based●Essay - expresses viewpoint/opinion ofwriter abt a topic●Biography - life of a person; auto-himself●News - report of everyday events in society ●Oration - oral counterpart of essay in society POETRY - line->stanza; rhyme,rhythm,melody; metrical pattern; metaphors/symb/special lang NARRATIVE - describes important events ●Epic - heroic journeys under supernatural control; longest poetry ●Metrical Tales - narrative written in verse; can be classified as a metrical romance ●Ballads - shortest/simplest; mostly tragedies; complete elements of a narrative LYRIC - meant to be sung ●Folksongs - short poem sung for a particular group/minority ●Sonnets - 14 lines; dealing w/ emotion, feeling, idea ●Elegy - expresses grief and melancholy; when someone dies ●Ode - dedicated to someone/smth (personified); no definite syllable number ●Psalms - songs praising God; contains philosophy of life ●Song - 12 syllables (dodecasyllabic); guitar/banduria accompaniment ●Corridos - 8 syllables in all lines DRAMATIC - performed on stage in front of an audience ●Soliloquy - dramatic monologue TECHNICAL - factual info, current issues, guidelines, research ●Books -Textbook - text -Workbook - worksheets -Worktext - text then worksheets ●Brochures - booklet printed in color -Pamhplets - 2-4 pages; folded,stapled -Flyers - single page ●Manuals - shows steps on how to do smth ●Academic Journals ●Scientific Journals
21ST CENTURY LITERATUREELEMENTS OF LITERATURE 1.Expression 2.Experience 3.Written/Recorded 4.Significant ●Universality 5.Enduring 6.Words well-chosen and arranged 7.Human Literatureisandenduringexpressionof significant human experience written in words well-chosen and arranged What is Literature?
1.Literature(originoftheterm-litera whichmeans letter) deals with ideas, thoughts and emotions of man - thuscan be said that literature is the story of man (Kahayon, 1998, p.5 - 7) 2.LiteraturecomesfromtheFrench phrase“belles-letters”whichmeans beautiful writing. (Baritug, et al. 1993) 3.Literature is one of the seven arts and as such, literature is a creative product of a work, the result of which… Why Literature? 1.Literatureinitsbroadestsense,is everything that has been written 2.Thebestwaytounderstandhumannaturefullyandtoknowanation completely is to study literature.3.Throughliteraturewelearntheinnermostfeelingandthoughtsof people-themostrealpartofthemselves,thuswegainand understandingnotonlyof others, butmore importantly, of ourselves and oflife itself (Garcia,1993) 4.Literature illuminates life 5.Literature is our life’s story including its struggles,ideas,sacrifices,andhappiness (Ang, 2006)6.Literatureappealstoman’shighernatureanditsneeds-emotional,spiritual, intellectual and creativeFunctions of Literature 1.Recreation - offers a form of escape and gives pleasure and enjoyment 2.Recognition - offers affiliation and we findsomethingofourselvesinthe author’s reality and we get to know more ourselves 3.Revelation - offers truth and order and recognitionofgoodandevil;gain lessons 4.Redemption - offers insight which helps us to modify our lives for the better. Literature is the art of discovering something extraordinaryaboutordinarypeople,and sayingwithordinarywordssomething extraordinary(BorisPastermark,Russian Novelist) Bloom’s Taxonomy ●Setofskillsthat we enhance as we criticize a text Levels Low Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) 1.Remember-readerrecallsconcrete informationstraightfromthereading selection (surface level) 2.Understand - ability to grasp meaning from the text so that we can explain it in our own words 3.Apply - use what you have learned in a concrete way Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) 4.Analyze-abilitytobreakdownthe different parts of a material (i.e compare and contrast, classify, cause and effect etc.) 5.Evaluate - ability to judge, rate, or form an opinion on a material;
Want to read all 29 pages?
Previewing 2 of 29 pages Upload your study docs or become a member.
6.Create - ability to put parts together tocreatesomethingnewandunique(includes adapting the elements of theexisting story to create a new one, try tocontinue existing work, connecting ideasfrom one text to another to create a newstory)LESSON 2: The Literary History of thePhilippinesTimeline of Philippine Literature1.Pre-Colonial2.Spanish Era3.American Occupation 4.The Japanese Era5.Contemporary PeriodI.PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD (ukn - 1564)●Literature in this era is said to be written beforetheSpanishcameinthePhilippines. Filipinos - variously referredto as “natives,” “ethnic minorities,” “tribalFilipinos,”etc.–havebeenabletopreserve for us literary forms that arenowourwindowstoapastwithnowritten records we can studyLiterary Forms Riddle (Bugtong) a.Definition ●Madeupofoneormore measured lines with rhymes and may consist of 4 - 12 syllables ●Showcase the Filipino wit, literary talent,and keen observation of the surroundings ●Involves reference to one or two imagesthatsymbolizethe characteristicsofanunknown object that is to be guessed b.Purposes ●Toentertain-familybonding; eldersquizyoungergeneration with riddles ●Toeducate-passingdown knowledge from one generation to another ●Tocurse,withoutexpressly cursing-madeagainstan enemy, rival town, or suitor ●Topreservetheculture- communicate the old ways from one generation to the next c.Examples ●Maykoronaperohindireyna, may kaliskis pero hindi isda ●Bata pa si Nene, marunong nang manahi ●Hayannasikaka, bubuka-bukaka ●Maliitnabahay,punongmga patay( ●Bumili ako ng alipin, mas mataas pa sa akin(sumbrero) Proverb, Idiom, Sayings, Epigram -Short poems that have been customarily used and served as laws or rules on good behaviour by our ancestors. Proverb (Salawikain) a.Definition ●A simple and short saying, widely known, often metaphorical, which expressesabasictruthor practicalprecept,basedon commonsenseorcultural experience ●Oftenuseformulaiclanguage and form a genre of folklore b.Purposes ●Toteachandeducatethe audience ●Containsexpertadvice,witha role for educating the readers on whattheymay face if they do something ●Play a didactic role, as they play auniversalroleinteaching wisdomandsagacitytothe common people. c.Examples ●Kunganoangpuno,siyaang bunga ●Kung maikli ang kumot, matutong mamaluktot ●Nasa Diyos ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa ●Angtaonggipitsapatalim kumakapit ●Kunganongitinanim,siyang aanihin
End of preview
Want to read all 29 pages? Upload your study docs or become a member.