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FinalStudyGuide - Capital people use it to analyze society...

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Capital – people use it to analyze society Marx – Ch 1 summary & encapsulation Uses dialectical method Goes from what is happening in the world theory Take empirical evidence, examine it Criticizes 3 bodies of knowledge – explain society [today] 1. Smith, Ricardo, Malfus – free market is natural occurrence 2. French Socialists (Prudhorn, Simmon) – Utopians 3. German Classic Philosophers (Hegel, Spinozi) – theorizing how society works, analyzes society Takes these conceptual apparatuses, rubs them together “For A Ruthless Critique of Everything Existing” – open letter Mode of analysis - - daily life (empirical) abstract (theoretical) Can’t have ascent without descent [portable Foucault] Must go back from abstract to daily life Starting point is Commodity 1960’s-70’s – Marx resurgence – before & after, not well-read We can use Marxist theory to explain today’s society Interest in commodities – manifestation of a particular mode of production But not why people buy them – this isn’t psychology Every useful thing 2 ways – quality & quantity Usefulness of thing – makes it a use value Quality (use value) Commodity Value Quantity (exchange value) Exchange value appears to be accidental – but it’s not It makes things Derives from amount of human labor put into something Measure of human labor Value is derived from labor Doesn’t take into consideration psychology of labels Fetish commodity – has value in and of itself? We forget it has value because of human value System of evaluation from people Value (relation) – not from natural process Socially necessary labor Concrete labor Value Labor Abstract labor *****************************************************************************
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World Systems Theory General models of social change To do with entire world – not just particular societies Relationship between societies Wallerstein – 1970’s – Columbia 1959 See in world – economy can’t be explained Neo-Marxist development Annales School – French – rose out of history journal Annales, Economies, Societies and Civilizations Incorporate social scenes & history 1949 founded U of Straussberg Talk to historians, geographers, social scientists, etc. Take into account multiple forms of data/sources of explanation Politics, diplomacy, war – prime reasons - historical change Look at long term historical structures His life: 1971 first job Decolonization process in Africa Started after WWII US wanted this American Empire by Neil Smith Post-WWII – American trying to make a mark US pushing for decolonization of world – focus on Africa The Dependency Theory – used in UN, Int’l relations Why countries being decolonized are underdeveloped Wallerstein is against the Dependency Theory Modern World Systems – ’74, ’80, ‘89 Draws on 3 influences 1. Marx – emphasizes economic factor over ideological factors To understand global profit, must understand global economy Dichotomy b/w capital and labor 2. Braudel – extensive network of exchange Exist 1400’s – 1500’s in Europe 3. His own ethnographic experience
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