BioBookNotesCh6

BioBookNotesCh6 - CHAPTER 6: HOW DO ORGANISMS SUPPLY...

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CHAPTER 6: HOW DO ORGANISMS SUPPLY THEMSELVES W/ ENERGY? Cagniard and two others, including Schwann, found that yeast cells were linked to fermentation Rejected by 19 th century scientists, like Liebig He thought chemical reactions didn’t need any microorganisms Vitalism – belief that living systems have powers beyond those of nonliving systems 6.1 HOW DO ORGANISMS SUPPLY THEMSELVES WITH ENERGY? Autotrophs – organisms that make their own food or obtain energy and synthesize organic molecules from inorganic material (e.g. plants); vast majority photosynthesize Heterotrophs – organisms that obtain chemical energy from other organisms Metabolism – complex network of biochemical conversions including cellular respiration WHAT IS THE COMMON CURRENCY OF ENERGY FOR ORGANISMS? Cellular respiration – the oxygen-dependent process by which cells extract energy from food Aerobic Anaerobic In all organisms, the common currency of energy is ATP HOW DO ORGANISMS EXTRACT ERNGY FROM MACROMOLECULES? Digestion – process of splitting macromolecules into simple building blocks Then can enter cells and be used WHAT ARE THE STEPS OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION? C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + ATP Glucose oxygen carbon dioxide water ATP Happens in 4 steps Glycolysis – 1 st step in cellular respiration; takes place in cytosol 6-carbon glucose is broken in half 2 molecules pyruvate with 3 carbons each 2 nd step: each pyruvate loses a carbon carbon dioxide released Citric acid cycle – 3 rd
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BioBookNotesCh6 - CHAPTER 6: HOW DO ORGANISMS SUPPLY...

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