East Asian Civ Final Study Guide
MEA 134-167, 183-242, 272-302, 326-406; all Sources readings
BOXER RISING (1899-1901)
Boxers formed in response to harsh economic conditions. There was also anti-foreign anxieties, stemmed
from the infiltration of railroads, etc., built without regard to Chinese traditions (graves, etc.). The Boxers
practiced qigong to get supernatural powers. In the drought of the spring/summer of 1900, many new
members showed support for the cause. Originally anti-dynastic, they changed their minds when Qing
officials supported their efforts against foreign powers. They then went against all Christians, especially
Catholics. They sieged the legation quarters in Beijing for 2 months and fought the forces there. There
wasn’t too much damage done because neither side was well organized or prepared. However, the powers
demanded a huge settlement from the Qing court for having to deal with this.
CHIANG KAI-SHEK AND THE NEW LIFE MOVEMENT (1887-1975) (1934)
Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang after the 1925 death
of Sun Yat-sen. During the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949), Chiang attempted to eradicate the Chinese
Communists, but ultimately failed, forcing his government to retreat to Taiwan, where he continued
serving as the President of the Republic of China and Director-General of the KMT for the remainder of
The New Life Movement was inaugurated in 1934. He wanted to rally the Chinese people against
Communism, but also to tighten discipline and build up morale in the Nationalist regime as a whole. He
tried to reform laxity in public life, official corruption, lack of discipline in the rans of party and army,
and public apathy, by emphasizing Confucian self-cultivation, a life of frugality, and dedication to the
nation. Chiang also promoted many different kinds of pro-Western progress, such as better hygiene, no
spitting on the floor, not leaving coats unbuttoned, etc.
DENG XIAOPING AND THE FOUR MODERNIZATIONS (1904-1997) (1978)
A leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). Under his tutelage, China developed one of the fastest
growing economies in the world while keeping the Communist Party of China in tight overall control.
The Four Modernizations were the goals of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms. Deng Xiaoping assumed control of
the party in late 1978, after Mao’s death. The new regime claimed it was returning to orthodox or
scientific socialism. In December 1978 at the Third Plenum, Deng Xiaoping announced the official
launch of the Four Modernizations, formally marking the beginning of the reform era. The Four
Modernizations were in the fields of:
Science and technology
The modernization of these four sectors would create the preconditions for bringing about true socialism.
The regime portrayed itself as the protector of the Chinese cultural heritage.