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Test 2 Review - Primates Primate Evolutionary Trends...

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Primates Primate Evolutionary Trends Locomotion Pentadactly- Retention of 5 digits on hands and feet Prehensility and Opposability- independent control and opposable thumb Retention of clavicles, upright posture in upper body Diet Omnivores- generalized Retention of all 4-tooth types Sensory Reduced Reliance on smell Increased sense of vision Stereoscopic and binocular (Good Depth Perception) Color Vision Postorbital bar or enclosure (bony projection of the eye) Nails not claws Larger and more complex brain Life History Early stages of life Prolonged, (Gestation (the process of being carried in the womb between conception and birth), infant, childhood, dependency) Greater emphasis on learning Greater Social Complexity Complexity of diet Diurnal (active in daylight) Social Animals Arboreal Quadruped- walks on all four hands usually on branches and not land. It’s different from the terrestrial quadruped. Much like dogs and cats Vertical clinging and leaping- Jumps from trees and hangs from the trees Branchiation- hangs and swings from branches Knuckle walking walks on the knuckles Suspensory- grip, hanging, arm strength Omnivore- animal or person that eats food from both plant and animal origin Folivore- animal that feed on leaves Frugivore- feeding on fruit Insectivore- any small usually nocturnal mammals (as moles, shrews, and hedgehogs) that feed mainly on insects Prosimians- Lemurs, lorises, and Tarsiers more primitive of the primates, tend to exhibit evolutionary trends to a lesser degree than the anthropoid do. Number of characteristics that are in common within the prosimians
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Highly developed sense of smell Still have wet noses Relatively the smallest brains of all the primates o Encephalization Quotient (EQ)- allows us to standardize relative brain size to make comparisons even when animals are considerably different body size. Takes 100 lb animals and weigh the brain. Say the average of the citers that weight 100lb is 2 lbs 2lb/100lb= 1.0 So likewise on average a critter that is 1 lb and his brain size is 1 oz 1 oz/1lb= 1.0 4lb/100lb = 2.0 --- compared to the average that is 1.0 it is double that so then it would be 2.0 than expected. o The purpose of this is to see who has the bigger brain relative to size. Prosimians: 1.1 Monkey: 2.0 Apes: 3.0-4.0 Human: about 6.0 Smallest of the primates but still larger than other citers relative to their body size “smatter than the average bear” so to speak.
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