Nature of the Turkish Conquests.rtf - Q Analyze the nature...

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Q. Analyze the nature of the Turkish invasions in the light of its Central Asian background.
RISE OF TURKS – INDEPENDENT SULTANS – MAHMUD OF GHAZNI One of the pertinent questions is why it was the Turks and not others, who came to India. For this we must trace the history of the Turks. Their political rise goes back to the Abbasid Caliphate, which began the practice of recruiting and training Turkish slaves in the military warfare and administration in an attempt to build an independent support base and strengthen their position. These slaves were also trained in Persian language and culture. Most of these slaves were either prisoners of war or bought from Turkish clans. They owed allegiance to their master, though not necessarily to his descendants. This led to the beginning of the ghulam system. Over a period of time, these ghulams began to be appointed to positions of authority, e.g. governors. Islam did not discriminate against slaves and soon they became very powerful. They came to dominate the Abbasid court and played a key role in matters of succession. After the decline of the Abbasids in the 9 th century, several prominent provincial dynasties became autonomous and numerous ‘succession states’ came up, either founded by Turks or with the help of Turkish slaves. However, they still continued to recognize the authority of the Caliphs. The rulers addressed themselves as amirs (commanders) of the Caliph and usually went through the formality of obtaining a patent of authority ( manshur ), a robe of investiture ( khillat ) and a sonorous title ( laqab ) from him, in return for inserting his name in the khutbah and the sikkah . One such family was the Samanids, which dominated Central Asia and Persia in the late 9 th -10 th . They further expanded the ghulam system and so Turks continued to rise in importance. Alptagin was one such slave, posted in Ghazni, who, taking advantage of a weakening Samanid state, began to carve out an independent area of influence around Ghazni. Gradually, under his successors, the state emerged as an independent political entity.
Mahmud of Ghazni was the ruler of this Ghaznavid dynasty from 998 to 1130 A.D. He was the first to formally adopt the title of ‘Sultan’. He also took titles like amin-ul-millat (Protector of the Muslim Community) and yamin-ud- daulah/khilafat

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