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Exam 1 notes - Intensive Property ijioiyiciei density...

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Intensive Property ijioiyiciei density boiling point melting point surface tension Phase behavior solid to liquid to gas. o Accurate for pure substances More energy to go from liquid to gas than solid to liquid Triple point *all substances -liquid, gas, solid @ same time Supercritical Fluid *part gas/part liquid water in solid phase = less dense that liquid phase. 1.1 Some Fundamental Definitions Chemistry : study of matter and its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes Matter : anything that has mass and volume Composition of Matter : the types and amounts of simpler substances that make it up (matter) Properties : the characteristics that give each substance its unique identity 2 types of properties -physical -chemical Physical properties: substances shows by itself, without changing into or interacting with another substance o Ie: color, melting point, electrical conductivity, density Physical change: substance alters its physical form, not its composition o Results in diff physical properties Chemical properties: substance shows as it changes into or interacts with another substance o Ie: flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acids Chemical Change/Reaction: when a substance is converted into a diff substance 3 different states of matter
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- solid: fixed shape that does not conform to the container shape. o Particles lie next to each other in a regular 3D array with a definite shape - Liquid: conforms to the container shape but fills the container only to the extent of the liquid’s volume o Forms surface o Particles lie together; move randomly around one another - Gas: conforms to container shape, but fills entire container o Does not form surface o Particles usually have great distances between them and move randomly Physical Change : different form same substance Chemical Change : different substance Physical Change caused by temperature change reversed by opposite temp change NOT TRUE FOR CHEMICAL CHANGE Central Theme in Chemistry Macroscopic : behaviors and properties we can see results of: o Submicroscopic properties and behaviors we cannot see Energy : ability to do work o Potential Energy : energy due to position of object Kinetic Energy : energy due to motion of object Electrostatic Forces : opposite charges attract; like charges repel *Higher energy substances are less stable than lower energy substances -When a less stable substance is converted into a more stable substance, PE is converted in KE density : m/v Extensive Property: dependent on the amt of substance present Intensive Property : independent on the amt of substance present 2.1 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures * Elements -Consist of only 1 kind of atom -Cannot be broken down pure substance: matter whose composition is fixed each element is unique because the properties of its atoms are unique
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