Extraction Analysis of Lavender Oil

Extraction Analysis of Lavender Oil - 1 Extraction and...

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1 Extraction and Analysis of Lavender Oil Abstract In this experiment, the presence of four primary molecular components of lavender oil were identified using gas chromatography. From the analysis of the gas chromatographs, the chemical composition of lavender was determined. The results, however, did not complement the given chemical composition values for the four components. Still, though, it was concluded that these four components—while not in the correct percentage—were, indeed, present in the lavender oil sample. Moreover, knowledge of the effect of intermolecular forces as they apply to analytical chemistry was attained. Introduction Lavender oil is a naturally-occurring substance, found in lavender plants, that is used in various medical treatments. It is often used to treat wounds, prevent infection, calm nerves, and induce sleepiness in patients. Lavender oil is known to contain many different components, the most abundant of which are Linalyl acetate (30-50% by composition), Linalool 20-35% composition), 1-terpinen-4-ol, and 1,8-cineole. It is the purpose of this experiment to identify and confirm the existence of these components, first by extracting lavender oil from a lavender slurry sample and then further separating the individual molecular components of the oil and identifying them. The method by which the lavender oil was extracted was steam distillation, which passes steam through lavender flowers in the slurry sample, causing the oil-containing cells of the glands to expand and break open; this releases the oil as vapor in the steam, which is condensed in later stages of the distillation process and collected as liquid
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2 lavender oil and water. A depiction of the distillation process can be found in Figure 1 below. After separating the oil from the water (see procedural description in “Experimental”), a gas chromatograph was utilized to separate the molecular components of lavender oil. A general diagram of a gas chromatograph can be seen in Figure 6 below. Gas chromatography works on the basis of intermolecular interactions between the components being separated (the analytes) and the material through which the components are being passed. Since the material through which the oil components were passed was a slightly-polar wax, the oil components that exhibit more polar tendencies spent more time in the column before they progressed into the flame-ionization detector
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 140L taught by Professor Calhoun during the Fall '07 term at Whitman.

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Extraction Analysis of Lavender Oil - 1 Extraction and...

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