study guide 12 p - Lauras study guide Utilitarianism...

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Laura’s study guide Utilitarianism Bentham: - He believes the right thing to do is maximize utility- power over pain. - Pain and pleasure govern our bodies and determine what we will do - Morality is based on these two aspects - We must consider welfare, utility and happiness of everyone o Example Lifeboat Case Bentham believes morality is an action which is comfortable to the principle of utility Principle of Utility- approves and disapproves of every action whatsoever. Hedonic calculus- adding pleasures, subtracting pain with reference to intensity, certainty, duration, purity, extent (cost- benefit analysis). Highest principle of morality: maximize general happiness by pleasure over pain. Utility: whatever produces pleasure or happiness but reduces suffering and pain. Ford Pinto Case- placed dollar value to human life and not thinking of emotional circumstances. Majority rule: greatest pleasure for the greatest number of people. - Objection- fails to respect minority and individual rights and preferences. Mill - Utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy of swine - Test of what is right and what is wrong - By accepting the basic utilitarian principles pleasure and freedom are the only things desirable as ends. - Utilitarian standard is not agent’s own greatest happiness but greatest amount of happiness altogether; also known as the natural sympathy of human kind. - Mill explains why we should think of others o Justice and Right It is unjust to: Violate legal rights of anyone Take or withhold moral right Person should obtain a good or undergo and evil which he does not deserve Break faith with anyone Be partial - In order to obtain max happiness for a lot of people we need rules of behavior. Also known as the norms of justice which are essential for human well-being.
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Sentiment of justice: feelings which accompany ideas of justice - Mill vs Bentham on Utilitarianism: one doesn’t need to refer to calculus explicitly because people already make up their minds about certain situations. - Bentham fails to take into account that some pleasures may be better than others. o Example Popper Management: Managing these people- should we force them to work and treat them like slaves if they don’t want to work? Should we accept that the reason we do this is because of utilitarian purposes? Mill believes that people choose lower pleasures because they don’t know any better. - Bentham does not distinguish between higher and lower pleasures. He believes that anything you get pleasure from is the same as what someone else gets pleasure from. o Happiness = happiness - Mill believes people don’t know any better so we get happiness from what we know. -
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course MORAL REAS 22 taught by Professor Sandel during the Fall '05 term at Harvard.

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study guide 12 p - Lauras study guide Utilitarianism...

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