kendall7e_im_ch09 (1)

kendall7e_im_ch09 (1) - Chapter 9 Systems Analysis and...

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Chapter 9 Systems Analysis and Design Instructor's Manual 9-1 1 Chapter 9 Describing Process Specifications and Structured Decisions Key Points and Objectives 1. The methods available for documenting and analyzing the logic of structured decisions include structured English, decision tables, and decision trees. 2. Process specifications are created for primitive processes and some higher level processes on a data flow diagram. They are also called minispecs (mini specifications). 3. The goals of producing process specifications are: A. Reduce process ambiguity. B. Obtain a precise description of what is accomplished. C. Validate the system design, including data flow diagrams and the data dictionary. 4. Primitive process specifications are not created for: A. Physical input and/or output processes. B. Processes that represent simple data validation. C. Processes for which pre-written code already exists. 5. Process descriptions may exist on a form or within a CASE tool repository. 6. Process logic may be represented as: A. Structured English. B. A decision table. C. A decision tree. D. A formula. E. Any combination of the above. 7. Business rules include the following: A. Definitions of business terms. B. Business conditions and actions. C. Data integrity constraints. D. Mathematical and functional derivations. E. Logical inferences. F. Processing sequences. G. Relationships among facts about the business. 8. Conditions, condition alternatives, actions, and action rules must be known in order to design systems for structured decisions.
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Chapter 9 Describing Process Specifications and Structured Decisions 9-2 9. Structured English is based on: A. Structured logic, or instructions organized into nested and grouped procedures, and B. Simple English statements such as add, multiply, move, and so on. It is an appropriate technique for analyzing the system when structured decisions are not complex. 10. To use structured English, the following steps are needed: A. Express all logic in terms of sequential structures, decision structures, case structures, or iterations. B. Use and capitalize accepted keywords such as IF, THEN, ELSE, DO, and PERFORM. C. Indent blocks of statements to show their hierarchy (nesting) clearly. D. When words or phrases used have been defined in a data dictionary, underline those words or phrases to signify that they have a specialized, reserved meaning. E. Be careful when using "and" and "or" operations, and avoid confusion when using logical comparisons such as "greater than" and "greater than or equal to." 11. Structured English has advantages of clarifying the logic and relationships found in human languages, being an effective communication tool, and easy to teach and understand. 12. The data dictionary may be used as a starting point when creating structured English as follows: A. Sequenced (simple + between elements) data dictionary entries become simple structured English statements.
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