Biology 124 (Cusic) Exam III Notes

Biology 124 (Cusic) Exam III Notes - Exam III Monday March...

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Exam III Monday March 31, 2008 (2-4pm) Thanh SI special session @ EB 144 Tuesday April 1, 2008 (5-7pm) Ezra SI special session @ Digestive system Use foods for raw materials for fuels and replacement Essential nutrients - vitamins and minerals, NaDP, FAD+ Breaking down organic materials through enzymatic hydrolysis Classified animals (4 major groups of heterotroph) o Nonphotosynthetic bacteria o Nonphotosynthetic protists (protozoans) o Fungi o Animals Protists and animals can be classified similarly Protists o Paramecium – taking food through the oral groove and release waste through anal pore Fungi o No intracellular digestion o Haustoria parasitic fungi o Two classes – parasitic or saprositic Animals o 4 ways to get their food Suspension (filter) feeder substrate feeder liquid bulk feeder o Sponge – suspension feeder with all the digestion inside the cell (intracellular digestion) o (fig. 41.13) Hydra – have a mouth and gastrovascular cavity; have both extracellular(allows them to eat bigger food) and intracellular digestion; food and waste in and out the same way o Planaria – have gastrovascular cavity with more surface area; both extra and intracellular digestion; only one opening (pharynx) o One way tube – opportunity for specialization; allow animals to have continuous digestion with a stomach; see fig. 41.14 o (fig. 41.14) Earthworm, grasshopper, bird – all have mouth and crop (stomach); crop in bird is used as temporary digestive machine for baby birds; Break down of hard rock-like materials in the Gizzard. o Intestine Breakdown protein into amino acid and polypeptide down into monosaccharide Absorption of the nutrients back into the body The break down of food by enzymatic action in the gut o Anus – the opposite end of the mouth where wastes leave
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(fig. 41.12) ingestion digestion absorption elimination Ingestion o Smell first o Taste it o Consider temperature and don’t burn your tongue o Swallow it (fig. 41.15) human digestive system Mouth – teeth, tongue, hard palate (anterior roof) separate mouth from nasal cavity, soft palate (posterior roof), uvula. o Deformation – cleft palate one of the most common birth defects o Teeth – 32 teeth 4 incisors to bite 2 pointed canines to tear 4 flat premolar to grind 6 flat molar to grind (fig. 41.26) dentition and diet carnivores with big canines to tear and swallow herbivores with flat incisors and molars to grind omnivores with both molars and canines for meat and veggie diet o tooth above the gum is crown; below the gum is the root enamel – the hardest substance of the body cover the tooth dentin – next layer of the tooth pulp – where the majority of the nerves/blood are o Salivary glands 1. Watery gland moistens mouth 2. Mucus gland secretes mucin , a glycoprotein, and turn the food into bolus Keep mouth from drying out for speech purposes
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Biology 124 (Cusic) Exam III Notes - Exam III Monday March...

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