HY 120 Exam I Notes - Millions of Native Americans were...

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Millions of Native Americans were wiped out by disease 40,000 years ago first people crossed the Bering Strait into N. America People also came from the Polynesian Islands Moundville Indians lived on top of the mounds so they could see for miles; tells us it was an organizational society Moundville Indians grew corn, tobacco, hemp, squash, sweet potatoes, peas, beans, sunflower(for oil) Men did all the manual labor, women did the rest(they were the main farmers) Built elaborate hedges to keep wildlife out; children were used to patrol Used crop rotation to keep soil fresh Also hunted wildlife (deer, bears, raccoons) Indians also lived on the coast and built weirs to catch fish Had a lot of time on their hands so they worked on their craft skills Used metals (Copper and Lead) Made elaborate weaves Worked leather by tanning it Had spoons, forks, bowls, platters Used stones to make knives, arrowheads Played ball games (if you lost, you died, however) Used saunas to cleanse themselves; were far cleaner than Europeans Worshipped fire and sun (was was the symbol for the sun) Indians addressed their mother’s brother as their “dad” because female line predominated Tattooed themselves for societal rank They were relatively tall for the time (5’6”-5’9”) because of lack of disease They were generally clothed: skirts, shoes, moccasins, shaved their heads as well Warfare was common, but it was much less bloody than European warfare An extended Indian family would live in a big log structure Generally, a 50ft pole was placed in the middle of the town plus a town square Powhattan nation in Virginia/N. Carolina Apalachee nation in northern Florida/S. Carolina Calusa nation in southern Florida/Alabama Economics of Europe Aristocracy of Europe held all the power/wealth
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Agriculture was primary economical source; hard physical (backbreaking) labor was used because modern machines weren’t around; only machines they had were windmills Fall/Winter are periods of inactivity with regards to work because it’s too cold; only work during the harvest month; Spring is when economic activity surges Plows were wooden, and pulled by either men themselves or oxen March 25 th , Lady Day; time to pay first quarter rent to the aristocracy Seed quality was poor; no fertilizers; no guarantee that the crop will survive even if weather conditions are perfect because of pests, etc. People in southern Europe take siestas after 2pm because it gets too hot Life in Europe About half of the population dies before their 21 st birthday; alas, the survivors aren’t even the lucky ones for hunger, cold, and disease awaited the survivors Plagues are rampant, wiping out whole communities Violence was rampant; continual warfare; criminals were everywhere, organized bands of criminals eagerly killed Jan. and Feb. were peak months for plague; miserable cold and hunger were at their peaks as well contributing to plague activity; Aug. and Sept.
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