Mitosis meiosis 11.17.20.docx - Mitosis and Meiosis PRE-LAB...

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PRE-LAB QUESTIONS 1. Describe at least three similarities and three differences between mitosis and meiosis. Similarities - Mitosis and meiosis both produce fresh cells based on their parent’s cell gene. Both have a multistage process. In both the cycles, synthesis of DNA takes place. The same mechanisms of chromosomal segregation are at work in both mitosis and meiosis, centrosomes, microtubules and motor proteins. Both the processes occur in the M-phase of the cell cycle. In both cycles, the stages are metaphase, anaphase, telophase and prophase. Mitosis and Meiosis both takes place in the cell nuclei which can be observed under a microscope . o Difference in Mitosis and Meiosis - Mitosis is a continuous process of cell division in all living things, the division of cell occurs by asexual reproduction , results in genetically identical daughter cells (diploid) with same number of chromosomes as the parent cells , the nuclear membrane is broken down, spindle fibers (microtubules) attach to the chromatids at the centromere and pull apart the chromatids . Required for genetic variation and continuity of all living organisms. - Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division that results in 4 haploid cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cells, genetically distinct from the parent cells, only cells that undergo meiosis will become sperm or eggs , Meiosis consists of meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I homologous chromosomes are separated into different nuclei. Focuses on the growth and developments of cells. 2. What major events occur during interphase? - The major event that occurs during interphase is the growth of cells and the nuclear DNA is duplicate. 3. What are chromosomes made of? -Chromosomes are made up of thread like structures that are present in the nucleus of plant and animal cells. Each one is made of protein with a single molecule of DNA, which is passed from parent to offspring. DNA contains specific instructions that make every living creature unique. Mitosis and Meiosis
4. Cancer is a disease related to uncontrolled cell division. Do a web-search to learn about chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer. Briefly describe how one of these drugs functions in relation to cell division. Explain your answer. Include references to information sources used. 5. Taxol (paclitaxel) is a cancer chemotherapy medication that interferes with the growth of cancer cells and slows their growth and spread in the body and is used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel works by treating cells that have defects in mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cell division. Unlike other tubulin-targeting drugs, such as colchicine, that inhibit microtubule assembly, paclitaxel stabilizes the microtubule polymer and protects it from disassembly.

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