Glossary - Functionalism Durkheim Integration/anomie...

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Functionalism Durkheim Integration/anomie Integration: “Durkheim’s term ‘integration’ contained the implicit assumption that individual membership was dependent on the adoption of the values and norms of the community’s defining group. (Tinto 105)” “When society is strongly integrated, it holds individuals under it’s control, considers them at it’s service and thus forbids them to dispose willfully of themselves (Farganis 55).” “For the collective for is not entirely outside of us; it does not act upon us wholly from without; but rather, since society cannot exist except in and through individual consciousness, this force must also penetrate us and organize itself within us; thus becomes an integral part of our being and by that very fact this is elevated and magnified.” (Durkheim in Farganis, 1912, 67) Anomie: “Many people are afflicted by a debilitating sense of purposelessness and normlessness in their lives, a social condition to which Durkheim gave the now famous term ‘anomie’ and which he considered to be one of the leading causes of suicide and unhappiness.. (p 53 Farganis)” “But if nothing external can restrain this capacity, it can only be a source of torment to itself. Unlimited desires are insatiable by definition and insatiability is rightly considered a sign of morbidity. Being unlimited, they constantly and infinitely surpass the means at their command; they cannot be quenched.” (Durkheim in Farganis,1951, 58) Division of labor: in a society the division of labor causes members to be dependent on each other because each specializes in diverse types of work. Durkheim’s 2 basic forms of social organization: 1. Mechanical solidarity (traditional) 2. Organic solidarity (modern) Solidarity – mechanical/organic Mechanical solidarity(“traditional”): mostly smaller scale societies connected members and integration, for example – kin groups, religion, education Focuses on integration that is based on shared beliefs, while organic focuses on the integration that results from specialization and interdepence. Organic solidarity(“modern/industrial societies”): specialization of work, each member is dependent on the other for their specialization (more advanced societies) “Modern societies, on the other hand, are characterized by organic solidarity, which replaces mechanical solidarity as the differentiation in the division of labor in society increases. As the name suggests, the cohesion of such societies depends
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less on the common culture and morality of its members than on their mutual interdependence(Farganis 52).” Collective consciousness: sharing of common beliefs and attitudes of members of a particular society – leads to unity and integration Sui generis: example –members can be replaced in a community but the values and definition of the organization will not change with loss of an individual - “Émile Durkheim’s scholarly writings were dedicated to the proposition that society
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