THEORY FINAL - 1 Foster Maci Foster Dr McClure Historical...

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1 Foster Maci Foster Dr. McClure Historical and Contemporary Social Thought 3 May 2013 Final Exam Modernism and the succeeding, altered era of thinking, Postmodernism, both possess distinctive attributes that aim to reach a better understanding of society as a whole. These ideologies have constructed diverse frameworks for the concepts read and discussed this semester, in History and Contemporary Social Thought. Modernism focuses on systems and how they function (the macro), while Postmodernism focuses more on local and specific notions. Characteristics of each, as well as notions of feminism, masculinity, critical race theory, and other ideas, can be viewed throughout the essay, ‘And You Thought Abercrombie & Fitch Was Pushing It?’ by Jaime Wolf. Modernity introduced new ideas to formulate rationalizations of social life, societal events, and various other aspects. Several of the sociological concepts associated with modernist views seem to contradict each other. For example, objectivism and subjectivism are opposing in a sense that one defines and standpoint based on realism and justice, while the other focuses on one’s internal thoughts and values. Integration, coined by Durkheim, was presented during this enlightening period. Integration was one of the main focuses of our class, providing us with a conception of the immense influence that assimilation can have on an individual or group as a whole. Integration involves movement of people, objects, capital, and ideas throughout areas it wouldn’t formerly reach. This mobility produced normalization of broad societal properties. Movement also aided in specialization, like bureaucracies’ division of labor. “Bureaucratic administration means fundamentally domination through knowledge. This consists on the one hand in technical knowledge which, by itself is sufficient to ensure it a position of extraordinary power. But
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2 in addition to this, bureaucratic organizations, or the holders of the power who make use of them, have the tendency to increase their power still further by the knowledge growing out of experience in the service (Farganis, 2011,105)”. Max Weber defined the concept of a bureaucracy based on discipline, highly effective, and hard to destroy. Bureaucracies are made up of hierarchy, specialization, division of labor and formalized rules. Weber’s idea of the iron cage stemmed from bureaucratic organization and rationality, which lead to the replacement of old ideas, values and traditions for new ones, that motivation particular behavior. In the capitalistic and industrialized iron cage, social actions are goal oriented and defined by efficiency, which appear to correlate with the business ethics of Dov Charney.
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