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# ch23 - Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations The Origin...

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Chapter 23: The Evolution of Populations The Origin of Species Convinced biologists evolution occurring Mendel contemporary, ignored until 1900’s Modern Synthesis 1940’s All reconciled Ideas from fossil experts, biogeographers, geneticists, taxonomists Modern Synthesis emphasized: Natural selection Importance of populations as units of evolution Units of Evolution Big misconception organisms evolve in their lifetimes. This is WRONG. It is the population, not its individual, that evolve . Evolution of Populations Population : group of all individuals of a species sharing common geographic area Species : Gene Pool Gene Pool = Includes all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals in a population Gene Pool If diploid: 2 alleles for trait Homozygous or Heterozygous Fixed: all members of population identical homozygous for trait Not fixed: each allele has relative frequency in gene pool Hardy-Weinberg (HW) Theorem: Before studying evolution in a population, helpful to compare to a NON- EVOLVING population (HW Theorem) In absence of other factors: sexual recombination has no effect on overall genetic structure of POPULATION

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Hardy-Weinberg Formulas : For simple dominant/recessive traits with AA, Aa, aa, you need to know 2 formulas to answer any question: 1) p + q = 1 Alleles: p = A, q = a 2) p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 Genotypes: p 2 = AA, 2pq = Aa, q 2 = aa Example of HW problem In a population with two alleles for a locus, the frequency of the B allele is 0.7.
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