Erikson is a student of Freud (same lingo) CH 8 • Nonsocial- o all children engage • Parallel play- o Playing alongside with each other but not interacting with each other. • Associative play- o when the child is playing along side , but with have brief interaction with each other , short lived interactions such as comments on what the other is doing • Cooperative play- o much more advanced play- children are working together to accomplish some goal. Cognitive Play Categories • Functional play- o simple, repetitive motor movements o With or without objects • Constructive play- o creating or constructing something • Make-believe play- o Acting out everyday and imaginative roles Child-Rearing Styles Focused on 4 dimensions • Warmth or nurturance- o more securely attached combined with expectations on how a child is to behave; higher sense of self esteem and doing better in school • Level of expectations or maturity demands-encourage maturity but it may not be appropriate. If parents don’t now then not good for the child. • Clarity and consistency of rules- with clear expectations then the child is usually less defiant. Best in terms of outcomes. Child will push but a parent must be • Communications between child and parent- o Don’t talk at your child but it also a listening process, allow some choices for your child. Child Rearing Styles Authoritative- Parent that are warm loving and nurturing with their child, but have high expectations, High in demand and control. More positive outcomes! More likely to be securely attached. Children show a higher value of self esteem, tend to be more independent Consequences
Authoritarian High levels of demand and control ‘Expect a lot from you but not warm and nuturing or no democracy. A dictatorship Low levels of warmth and communication Consequences Children do less well in school Have lower self esteem Typically less skilled with peers Others show high aggressiveness Traits last well into high school Permissive Parent “indulgent” parent High in warmth- and communication Low in demand and control :”Get away with anything “ parent “laissez – faire” • Consequences • Do slightly worse in school during adolescence • Likely to be more aggressive • Somewhat more immature • Less likely to take responsibility • Less independent Uninvolved Type Consequences- Most consistently negative outcomes Disturbances in social relationships More impulsive and antisocial behavior Less competent with peers Not oriented in school Cultural variations in Child- Rearing Styles Authoritative pattern More common in white Proactive- Instrumental
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- Fall '13
- Developmental Psychology, Motor control, child rearing styles