Psy 119-chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Theoretical Perspectives on...

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Theoretical Perspectives on Sex Sex & Gender: An Introduction (5 th Edition) Hilary M. Lips Chapter 2
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Theories About Sex and Gender What is a theory? a set of ideas about how and why things happen What is the role of a theory? to guide research to generate hypotheses (propositions) that can be tested against observed reality Cultural assumptions about Sex and Gender the problems of theories that fit well with “accepted wisdom” the problems of theories at odds with “accepted cultural notions”
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Early Theories About Sex and Gender Theories of female-male similarities, differences have in the past emphasized: Woman as an “incomplete man”, as a “defective man” (Plato, Aristotle) Assumptions of female weakness, inferiority and incompleteness are used to justify differing social roles Woman as the opposite of man, the sexes as being irreconcilably different (19 th Century thinkers) Two sexes treated as irreconcilably different Woman as intellectually inferior to man (late 19 th Century, 20 th Century thinkers) Representing as much a “cultural “given” needing theories for why it is true, rather than a theory itself.
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Historically Gender inside and outside of psychology saw women as defective men. Remember when we study gender we must fulfill the requirement for a good and useful theory: That is to say, our results must be subjected to verification
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Psychoanalytic/Identification Theories Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of: The Human Mind: Like an iceberg, only its small tip is visible above the water, only a portion is directly knowable, open to reflection, to Consciousness: The Unconscious: a much larger region, below surface awareness Composed of unacceptable urges, motives, passions, ideas, feelings that people cannot acknowledge as theirs. A region that can only be explored indirectly: e.g., in dreams, in free associations, in symptoms and “slips” of the tongue
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Psychoanalytic/Identification Theories Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of: The Human Mind: that part of mind available to awareness, that region composed of the thoughts, feelings and urges we know we have, but this does not include … A much larger region, below surface awareness Composed of unacceptable urges, motives, passions, ideas, feelings that people cannot acknowledge as theirs. A region that can only be explored indirectly: e.g., in dreams, in free associations, in symptoms and “slips” of the tongue The Unconscious: Consciousness: Like an iceberg, only its small tip is visible above the water, only a portion is directly knowable, open to reflection, to
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Psychoanalytic/Identification Theories Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of: Personality: Composed of three interactive systems the ego system is based on reality principles; balances subjective needs and objective reality Superego Id A non-rational system based on pleasure principle; the source of sexual, aggressive instincts, reservoir of psychic
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Psy 119-chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Theoretical Perspectives on...

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