Psych 119 Chapter 4

Psych 119 Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Worlds Apart? Gender...

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Worlds Apart?  Sex & Gender: An Introduction (5 th Edition) Hilary M. Lips Chapter 4 Gender Differences in Social  Behavior & Experience
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In the Research on Gender Differences In chapter 4, we ask: How important is context in producing gender differences? Are men really more aggressive than women? Is one sex more susceptible to influence than the other? Do women and men differ in dominance? Are women more nurturing than men?
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In the Research on Gender Differences Chapter 4 Overview Continued: Is there a male-female difference in the tendency toward empathy? Who is more altruistic: women or men? How do role expectations, status, the focus on studying particular kinds of behavior, and observer bias contribute to our conclusions about how females and males differ?
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Social Expectations Emotional Predispositions Particular Circumstances Punishments, Reward, Abuse Power Social, Physical Economic and Political Aggression: A complex of interacting factors influencing gender differences I II III IV V
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I. Social Expectations influenced by the aggressor’s and recipient’s gender affect the perceived degree or severity of aggressiveness depending upon the aggressor’s gender influence the form of aggression that may be employed (e.g., overt vs. relational) Aggression: A complex of interacting factors influencing gender differences
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II. Particular Circumstances may encourage aggression as a property of interacting dyads or groups of individuals highlight the importance of the social situation in constructing the conditions for aggressive behavior Aggression: A complex of interacting factors influencing gender differences
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III. Emotional Predispositions : Males and females may not differ in aggressive behavior at high or low arousal levels; however, they may differ dramatically at intermediate levels. Males may be more easily aroused by aggression-related stimuli, or have more trouble regulating their emotional reactions than females. Women experience more anxiety about aggressive feelings and feel more anxious after being aggressive than do men. Aggression: A complex of interacting factors influencing gender differences
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IV. Punishment and Rewards Women face more social restrictions in expressing aggression than do men This reflects differing norms learned by boys and girls When rewards for aggression are equal, boys and girls may be equally aggressive Aggression: A complex of interacting factors influencing gender differences
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IV. Sexual abuse and later aggression Physical or sexual abuse in childhood
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Psych 119 Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Worlds Apart? Gender...

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