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ANAT CH7 - AXIAL SKELETON Eighty bones segregated into...

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AXIAL SKELETONEighty bones segregated into three regions - skull, vertebral column, bony thoraxSKULL-Most complex bony structure-Formed by the cranium and facial bones-CraniumoProtects brainoSite of attachment for head and neck musclesoIncludes all the bones that touch the brain-Facial bonesoFramework for the face, sense organs, and teethoProvides openings for passage of air and foodoAnchors the facial muscles of expressionCranium– 8 bones-Parietal (2), temporal (2), frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid-Thin and strong for their weightFrontal Bone-Anterior portion of the cranium-Articulates posteriorly with the parietal bones via the coronal suture-Major markings = supraorbital margins, anterior cranial fossa, frontal sinuses (internaland lateral to the glabella)Temporal Bone-Forms inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of cranial floor-Divided into four regions – squamous (flat), tympanic, mastoid, and petrous-Major markings = zygomatic, styloid/ mastoid processes, middle cranial fossa-Major openings= external auditory meatus, internal auditory meatus, stylomastoid/jugular foramina, carotid canalSphenoid Bone-Butterfly-shaped bone-Spans the width of the middle cranial fossa-Forms the central wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones-Central body, greater wings, lesser wings, and pterygoid processes-Major markings = sella turcica, hypophyseal fossa, pterygoid processes, sphenoidsinuses, middle cranial fossa-Major openings =optic canals, superior orbital fissureEphmoid Bone-Deepest skull bone-Lies between the sphenoid and nasal bones-Forms bony area between the nasal cavity and the orbits-Major markings = cribriform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, superior/ middlenasal conchae, ethmoid sinusesFacial Bones – 14 bones-Paired bones = maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, inferior conchae-Mandible and volume are only unpairedMandible
-Lower jawbone-Largest, strongest bone of face-Major markings = coronoid process, mandibular condyle, alveolar margin, mandibularangle, mandibular and mental foraminaMaxillary Bones-Medially fused bones make up upper jawand central facial skeleton-Keystone bones that articulate with all other facial bones except mandible-Major markings = palatine, frontal, and zygomatic processes, alveolar margins, maxillarysinusesFacial Bones-Zygomatic Bones – cheekbonesoIrregularly shapedoForm prominences of cheeks and inferolateral margins of orbits-Nasal bonesoThin medially fused bonesoForm bridge of nose-Lacrimal bonesoContribute to medial walls of orbitsoContain lacrimal fossae which house lacrimal sacs-Palatine bonesoTwo bone platesoForms portions of hard palate, posterolateral walls of nasal cavity, and small partsof orbits-VomeroPlow-shaped boneoForms part of nasal septum-Inferior nasal conchaeoPaired, curved bones in nasal cavityoForm part of lateral walls of nasal cavityOrbits-Bony cavities in which eyes are firmly encased and cushioned by fatty tissue-

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Term
Spring
Professor
Rose
Tags
Vertebra, thoracic vertebrae, major markings

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