HS150 WORLD CIVILIZATIONS I ANSWER TO ASSIGNMENT 08.doc -...

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Cornelia Darimaani AC1300661 HS150 World Civilizations I Assignment 08 January10, 20018 China is one of the world’s richest historical countries boasting of ancient civilization and has a mysterious and long history for over 5,000 years. China traces her culture to a blend of small tribes like any other great civilizations of the world. China’s imperial system right from the onset was based the tributary system. In the third century B.C.E., the first emperor ended the warring State Era by conquering all of China, founded the short-lived Qin dynasty, and opened the way for four centuries of Han dynastic rule. In the sixth century C.E., a northern general named Yang Jian ended the Age of Disunity by conquering all of China, founded the short-lived Sui dynasty and opened way for six centuries of preeminence under the Tang and Song dynasties. The Sui Dynasty The Sui Dynasty was founded by Yang Jian, a general with both Chinese and Toba ancestry who reigned from 581 to 606 as Emperor Wendi who through crafty opportunism gained a young boy monarch and claimed Heaven’s Mandate for himself, forming the Sui dynasty in 581. He focused on forging and restoring connections. He unified china through skillful propaganda by carefully cultivating the Buddhist support, and with well-planned river and land campaign, he went on to conquer the south. So by 589, for the first time in centuries, one man ruled all of China. The Sui dynasty was marked by the reunification of Southern and Northern China and the construction of
the Grand Canal a momentous waterway connecting the north with the south, easing transport of troops and grain. The Sui dynasty initiated the Equal-field system to reduce the rich-poor social gap which resulted in enhanced agricultural productivity. Yang devised a nationwide law code and restored the civil service system begun by the Han rulers. Governmental power was centralized and the Three Departments and Six Ministries system officially instituted; coinage was standardized and re-unified, defense was improved, and The Great Wall was expanded and is still the largest canal in the world and is a greatly visited UNESCO World Heritage Site. Buddhism was also spread and encouraged throughout the empire, uniting the varied people and cultures of China. Yang Jian was succeeded by his son Yangdi from 604 to 618 who however was a disastrous ruler. Yangdi is described in the Chinese annals as a despot who reportedly poisoned his father to hasten his own rule, then alienated his people by imposing harsh taxes and sacrificing millions of laborers lives to erect an extravagant palace, complete the Grand Canal, and rebuild the Great Wall. He further extended the empire, but, unlike his father, he did not seek to gain support from the nomads. Instead, he restored Confucian education and the Confucian examination system for bureaucrats. By supporting educational reforms, he lost the support of nomads. This combined

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