1WEEK 9 – Women in Judaism-What is meant by ethno-religious group and why is this significant in Judaism?•An ethno-religious group is an ethnic group of people unified by a common religious background. It is significant in Judaism because Jews place an emphasis on religious endogamy (marriage within a group). Jews think of their religion as not just a religion but also a culture.-What are the three major Jewish religious movements and how have the impacted women within them?•OrthodoxoVery strictly abide by Jewish lawoVery conservative•ConservativeoCommitted to following traditional laws and customs but accept modern interpretationsNot static, must be understood in context of societyoText was inspired by God not directly handed down by him•ReformoJewish law is just a set of guidelines and principles, not strict restrictionsoReject that Law is bindingoIndividual Jews should practice autonomy of what to observe and what not to observeoEgalitarian prayer service-What are some of the specific gendered practices within Judaism?oMitzvot (for women)Niddah: maintaining separation during ones menstrual cycle and going through a cleansing ritual afterwards (ritual is called mikvah)Nerot: lighting candlesChallah: separating a portion of the dough from the bread-Who was Lilith and what roles does she play for Jewish women- how has she been re-envisioned?•In traditional Judaism she is seen as an evil figure, a demon•Seduce men and seize children•Considered mother of all demons•Recently feminists have changed the view of LillithsoRole model for women who don’t accept male dominationoGoddess that challenges male biased traditionsKnow the following terms:Ethno-religious group:an ethnic group of people unified by a common religious backgroundEndogamy:marriage within a groupmihu Yehudi ("who is a Jew"):•Who is a Jew?Very hard to identify who is JewishSomeone born to a Jewish mother or someone who converts to Judaism according to Jewish lawAccording to American reform and British traditions any child who has one Jewish parent can be considered Jewish•Conversion to Judaism is more accepted now, however once converted you are always a Jew foreverMishnah:the first written recording of the Oral Torah of the Jewish peopleMinyan:the group of ten men needed as a minimal attendance for community worship
2Fisher,Ch 6 Women in Judaism-Who was the Queen of Heaven and what did she represent to women? •The Queen of Heaven was an early Goddess in Judaism until all Goddess worship was eradicated and Judaism became mainly a monotheistic religion, worshiping a masculine God. The Goddess was important to women because she represented femininity and she also allowed women to be included in worship and prayer.