chapter 5 learning lecture.pdf - PSYCH 01 Chapter 5...

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PSYCH 01 Chapter 5: Learning
WHAT IS LEARNING? Learning: Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. When people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned. Any kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning. We learn concepts and skills in school. We learn from watching others. We learn certain skills like riding a bike, by doing them.
PAVLOV AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Ivan Pavlov : Russian physiologist (person who studies the workings of body) who discovered classical conditioning through his work on digestion in dogs. -Classical conditioning : Two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. Reflex -A simple unlearned response to a stimulus. ( Something that we do or think automatically ) Stimulus - An environmental condition that elicits a response. ( Something that encourages activity in people or things)
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING CONCEPTS Unconditioned stimulus : a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response. - Unconditioned means unlearned or naturally occurring.” Unconditioned response : an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus. Example : Unconditioned stimulus ( sour food placed on the tongue) = unconditioned response ( salivation ) - US( a firm tap on the knee )=UR ( knee jerk reflex )
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING CONT.. - Conditioned Stimulus(CS): Stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus - Conditioned means “ learned” -Neutral stimulus (NS) can become a conditioned stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus. - Conditioned response (CR): learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus - Sometimes called a conditioned reflex -CS: ice cream truck -CR: salivation when one hears ice cream truck bell
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
HIGHER-ORDER/SECOND-ORDER CONDITIONING
CONDITIONED EMOTIONAL RESPONSE - Conditioned emotional response (CER): -Emotional response that has become occasionally conditioned to occur to learned stimuli.

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