Chapter 7 & 8 thinking, lang, intelligence: motivation & emotion.pptx

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PSYCH 07 Thinking, Language and Intelligence
THINKING: REASONING ABOUT REASONING What is thinking? Thinking is the ultimate cognitive activity, consciously using our brains to make sense of the world around us and decide how to respond to it. Cognition: A mental processes involved in acquiring and processing information that are necessary for everyday living. Concept: A mental category that is used to class together objects, relations, events, abstractions, ideas or qualities that have common properties.
NATURE OF THINKING It is essentially a cognitive activity. It’s always directed to achieved some end or purpose. It’s described as a problem-solving behavior. It’s a symbolic activity. It’s a mental exploration instead of motor exploration. It can shift very rapidly.
TYPES OF THINKING Perceptual or Concrete thinking Conceptual or Abstract thinking. Convergent thinking Divergent thinking Reflective thinking Creative thinking Critical Thinking
CONCRETE THINKING/ABSTRACT THINKING Concrete thinking is literal thinking that is focused on the physical world. People engaged in concrete thinking are focused on facts in the here and now, physical objects, and literal definitions. Abstract thinking is a level of thinking about things that is removed from the facts of the “here and now”, and from specific examples of the things or concepts being thought about.
CONVERGENT AND DIVERGENT THINKING Convergent thinking: Occurs when the solution to a problem can be deduced by applying established rules and logical reasoning. Divergent thinking : Refers to a way of solving problems wherein a variety of possible solutions are proposed in an effort to find one that works.
REFLECTIVE THINKING Reflective thinking : Reflective thinking’ is the notion of awareness of one’s own knowledge, assumptions and past experiences. Your past learning and experience provide the context for your thoughts, and are therefore unique to you, but reflective thinking is a dynamic process that continues to develop and evolve as you learn and respond to new experiences, situations, events or information.
CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKING Creative thinking : The ability to look at things differently, and find new ways of solving problems. Critical thinking: The ability to think clearly and rationally, understanding the logical connection between ideas.
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THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE According to Howard Gardner we all have some forms of intelligence. 1) Visual-Spatial Intelligence - People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good at visualizing things. These individual are often good with directions as well as map, charts, videos and pictures. ( career choices : Architect, Artist, Engineer) 2) Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence People who are strong in Linguistic-verbal intelligence are able to use words well, both when writing and speaking. These individuals are typically very good at writing stories, memorizing information and reading.

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