chapter 3 Sensation and Perception lecture.pdf - PSYCH 01...

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PSYCH 01 Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception
SENSATION + PERCEPTION=OUR INTERPRETATION OF REALITY AROUND US
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Sensation: The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment. Ex: Seeing, hearing, feeling, touch, etc. In sensation, sense organs of the body( for example, the eyes) convert environmental energy such as the light that is bouncing off of objects, into neural signals that brain can then process. Seeing-the first step to getting information into our minds. Perception: The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. Helps us survive in our environment. Example: Before parents feed their child hot meal from the stove, they taste it in order to make sure that the temperature isn't too hot. This involves using sensory information( touch and taste) to make sure that the food is not dangerous to the child.
WHAT DO YOU SEE ON THIS 3D BOTTLE?
CLOSE LOOK TO THE 3D IMAGE
ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD Attention : Conscious awareness, can be focused on events that are taking place in the environment or inside our minds. Absolute threshold : The minimal amount of energy that produce a sensation. The smallest level of a stimulus that a person is able to detect 50 percent of the time.
WHEN ABSOLUTE THRESHOLDS ARE NOT ABSOLUTE Signal detection theory : Refers to whether or not we detect a stimulus, especially amidst background noise. This depends not just on the intensity of the stimulus but on psychological factors such as the person’s experience, expectations, motivations and alertness.
CONT.. Pitch: The highest or lowness of sound as determined by the frequency of the sound waves. Subliminal perception: When the intensity of a stimulus is below the participant's absolute threshold and the participant is not consciously aware of the stimulus. Subliminal perception is supposed to occur when a stimulus is too weak to be perceived yet a person is influenced by it. Subliminal techniques: Embeds: Tiny figures that are inserted into magazine: advertising using high-speed photography or airbrushing. There is little evidence that subliminal stimuli can bring about desired behavioral changes.
SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY The view that the perception of sensory stimuli involves the interaction of physical, biological, and psychological factors. Your ability or likelihood to detect some stimulus is affected by the intensity of the stimulus (e.g., how loud a noise is) and your physical and psychological state (e.g., how alert you are).
EXAMPLE For example: Walking to your car that is parked in an empty parking lot late after class at night all by yourself. You might be much more aware of noises because the situation is somewhat threatening (you are primed and listening carefully to hear anything and everything). You may hear some slight noises that you might otherwise not hear if you were in a different situation that was not as threatening.

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