MB230 Lecture 6 Notes - Lecture 6 Acellular...

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Lecture 6: Acellular Microorganisms * How were viruses “discovered” if they could not be visualized? * How are viruses studied or cultured? -Host cells are required (bacteria) the grow bacteria in broth and add bacteriophage (bacteria eater which is also a virus that infects bacteria) and study model. Same can be done with infecting animals host cells although it is unethical and expensive while using the bacterial culture is cheap. * Compare and contrast lytic and lysogenic bacteriophage infections -A lytic cycle involves an attachment where viruses bind to host cell, penetrating; injection of viral genome into hose cell, synthesis; through cell machinery viral components are made, assembly; virus completed, release; cell lyses ruptures and new virus is released leading to an end result of hundreds of new viruses produced and infected cells die while through a bacteriophage a host is infected turned into a bacterial culture the virus is then added and infects bacteria. *Compare and contrast lytic/acute and lysongenic/latent animal virus infections -In a lytic cycle (look at question above for full steps) the end result is hundreds of new viruses being produced and infected cells dying while in the Lysogenic the attachment is the same and as a possible end result no viruses could be produced or viral DNA picks up at the synthesis and hundreds of viruses are produced and cell dies. -Lysogenic cycle predominates over the lytic cyle where viruses produce slowly and cell survives for a long time. The Lysogenic Cycle is also much more complicated and only MAY be cell death. * Define a viroid and a prion -Viroid: A circular molecule of offspring with no protein that affects only plants -Prion: Composed of protein only with no nucleic acid that infects humans and animals nervous systems.
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