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WritingDanielle S. McNamara & Laura K. Allen2019
AbstractWriting is a crucial means of communicating with others and thus vital to success and survival inmodern society. This article provides an overview of recent research and key findings aboutwriting, including the roles of cognitive and social processes during writing, and educationalresearch on how to improve writing proficiency. Writing processes rely on virtually all aspects ofcognition (e.g., working memory, motivation, affect, self-regulation, prior knowledge, problemsolving) and are naturally embedded in social contexts. Social factors include writers’ objectives,audience, genre, and mode of writing. For example, the increased use of the Internet hasrendered writing for informal purposes more frequent and writing mechanics (e.g., deleting, spellchecking) and search for information more efficient. Research on educational interventions toimprove writing points to the importance of providing students with instruction and practiceusing writing strategies, writing practice with feedback (e.g., instructor, automated), andcollaborative writing (including peer feedback). The authors recommend that more time bedevoted to writing instruction, the need for technology to support teachers and students, and aneed for increased funding to support teachers in their efforts to providing writing instruction.Given the inherent complexity of writing, it is important to help students learn how to writeacross various situations and demands. Therefore, it is vital that students are taught how to writeacross various situations with varying purposes and demands. This necessitates reading manytypes of text genres (e.g., narrative vs. informational writing), writing frequently, and revisingbased on feedback. Over the past two decades, there has been a substantial increase in researchon writing processes, including methods to improve writing. However, there remains asubstantial need for additional experimental work to understand writing processes as well asmore evidence on which types of interventions are most beneficial in helping students to improvetheir writing. Feedback from both cognitive and sociocultural researchers should inform futurerevisions of the standardized guidelines and assessments with the long-term goal of developing aclearly defined set of standards for academic excellence in writing.
McNamara & AllenWriting1WritingDanielle S. McNamara, Laura K. AllenSummaryWriting is a crucial means of communicating with others and thus vital to success andsurvival in modern society. This article provides an overview of recent research and keyfindings about writing, including the roles of cognitive and social processes duringwriting, and educational research on how to improve writing proficiency. Writingprocesses rely on virtually all aspects of cognition (e.g., working memory, motivation,affect, self-regulation, prior knowledge, problem solving) and are naturally embedded in

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Term
Winter
Professor
Nesrin Al Barodi

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