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Human-chimpanzee comparisons bipedalism--answers

Human-chimpanzee comparisons bipedalism--answers - SOCA 252...

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SOCA 252: Introduction to Physical Anthropology Group: ___________________ In-Class Assignment Present: Human and chimpanzee skeletons indicate a number of differences between quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion patterns. We have already looked at two differences related to the cranium: the position of the foramen magnum and the relative development of the nuchal region. The assignment considers several more major differences (cf. the information in the textbook, pages 244-248). 1) Limb proportions: Describe the differences in the relative length and weight proportions of the limbs and trunk in chimpanzees and humans. How are these differences related to the differences between quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion? The chimpanzee has proportionately longer/heavier forelimbs and proportionately shorter/lighter hind limbs than humans because they are knuckle-walking quadrupeds. Their forelimbs are more important to locomotion than forelimbs are in bipeds like humans. 2) Trunk: Describe the differences in the shape of the ribcage in the monkey (macaque), chimpanzee, and human. Monkeys have a long and narrow thoracic region (allows all of the limbs to be close to the body). The chimpanzee ribcage is more shaped more like a cone while the human ribcage has more rounded shape (the chimpanzee flaring is due to the ilium flare and its higher location in the chimpanzee). The conical top also allows for a shift in the shoulder joint, allowing for easier brachiation. The ribs are also shaped a little differently in the human to allow for greater flexibility.
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