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Unformatted text preview: iminnating bias or systematic distortion from one's observations. Requires
effective listening and responding skills. Obtaining the primary symptom data enhances
objectivity. Premature interpretation compromises objectivity. (syn: accuracy ; validity)
A characteristic of the scientific process that relates to the distribution of observations around
t he real value. In a medical history, words should be precise. They should be sufficiently
detailed and unambiguous to indicate the real data.
The ability to "pick up" real cases of the disease in question. The higher the sensitivity, the
greater the percentage of cases identified accurately. Requires that we use our interviewing
s kills to maximize our ability to identify "real" cases of illness. specificit y The ability to "rule out" disease in normal people. The higher the specificity, the greater the
likelihood that a negative test result actually identifies a person who does not have the
disease. Requires that we use our interviewing skills to maximize our ability to identify "real"
c ases of wellness.
The ability for different observers to obtain the same results.
1. Remain quiet.
2. Observe the patient.
3. Let the patient talk.
4. Listen for the primary symptom data.
5. Listen to the words the patient uses.
6. Listen to what's between the words: tone, pauses (paralanguage).
7. Note discrepancies between what the patient says and how it's said.
8. Listen for the patient's interpretation.
3 therapeutic core qualities (from Respect: Unconditional positive regard. To value an individual's traits and beliefs despite
y our own personal feelings about them and to see patients' feelings and behavior as a valid
adaption to their illness or life circumstances. The ability to accept the patient as he or she
Genuineness: C ongruence. The ability to be yourself in a relationship despite your
Empathy: Ability to listen to the total communicaton - words, feelings, and gestures - and
letting the patient know that you are really hearing what he or she is saying.
7 ways to demonstrate respect for 1. Introduce yourself clearly.
2. Do not use the patient's first name during an initial interview without permission.
3. Introduce yourself and explain your role.
4. Inquire about and arrange for the patient's comfort before getting started.
5. Continue to consider the patient's comfort during the course of your history and PE.
6. Warn the patient when you are about to do something unexpected or painful.
7. Respond to your patient in a way that shows you have heard what he or she has said.
reliabilit y and reproducibilit y
8 act ive list ening skills 4 levels of responding 1. I gnoring: You do not hear what the patient has said or act as though you did not hear.
2. Minimizing: You respond to the feelings and symptoms at less than the actual level
expressed by the patient.
3. I nterchangeable: You recognize the feelings and symptoms express...
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- Fall '12