Unformatted text preview: expectancy, even when smokers stop smoking
after the age of 65 years or after the development of a tobacco-related disease. Proportion of smokers who try to Approximately 1/3 of smokers try to stop smoking each year, but only 20% of them seek
quite each year; % seeking help; h elp. Fewer than 10% of smokers who attempt to quit on their own are successful over the
% of those who are successful
long term. Smokers have a higher rate of success when they seek help with quitting.
What is the chief physiological
obstacle to quitting?
Nicot ine wit hdrawal Addictive nature of nicotine. Nonspecific, vary widely in intensity and duration, and are not correctly identified by smokers.
Symptoms begin a few hours after the last cigarette, peak 2 - 3 days later, and wane over a
period of several weeks or months.
2. Counseling: Group or individual counseling is effective when it is provided by trained
c ounselors and includes repeated contacts over a period of at least 4 weeks. Smokers
t ypically learn to identify smoking cues, then use cognitive and behavioral methods to break
t he link between the cues and smoking.
% by which a physician's advice 30% .
to stop smoking increases the
rates of smoking cessation among
2 approaches that have strong
evidence of efficacy for smoking
cessation Nicot ine-replacement t herapy Nicotine-replacement therapy provides an alternative form of nicotine to relieve symptoms of
w ithdrawal. It is safe in patients with cardiovascular disease, including stable angina. Unlike
s moking, it does not increase the coagulability of blood or expose a patient to carbon
monoxide or oxidizing gases that damage endothelium.
1. The patch provides a relatively stable, fixed dose of nicotine over a period of 16 - 24 hrs.
Slow onset and long duration. Blood nicotine levels peak 2 - 4 hrs after administration
2. Nicotine gum - blood nicotine levels peak 20 mins after administration
3. Nasal spray - blood nicotine levels peak 5 - 10 mins after administration
4. Vapor inhaler - blood nicotine levels peak 20 mins after administration Non-nicot ine t herapy Buproprion is an anti-depressant with dopaminergic and noradrenergic activity. Efficacious
f or smoking cessation when combined with counseling. May temporarily reduce weight gain
Average weight gain after
2.3 - 4.5 kg (5 - 10 lbs)
Characteristics associated with a 1. Coexisting psychiatric conditions
low rate of successful treatment
2. Alcohol or substance abuse
3. Strong nicotine dependence
4. Lack of social support for quitting
5. Low level of confidence in one's ability to quit
Smokers with a history of depression who attempt to quit smoking not only have lower rates
of success but also have more depressive symptoms during nicotine withdrawal and a
greater risk of recurrent depression after cessation. CHAPTER 10:
Lecture: Complementary &
Wednesday, September 21, 2005
6 t ypes of CA...
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- Fall '12
- Human Sexuality, Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Sexual arousal, Sexual dysfunction