# It is recommended that teachers introduce students to

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Unformatted text preview: ed to use alternative forms of notation in their written answers. This is because not all forms of IBO notation can be directly transferred into handwritten form. For vectors in particular the IBO notation uses a bold, italic typeface that cannot adequately be transferred into handwritten form. In this case, teachers should advise r students to use alternative forms of notation in their written work (for example, x , x or x ). Students must always use correct mathematical notation, not calculator notation. 5 the set of positive integers and zero, {0,1, 2, 3, ...} the set of integers, {0, ± 1, ± 2, ± 3, ...} ++ the set of positive integers, {1, 2, 3, ...} the set of rational numbers the set of positive rational numbers, {xx ∈ + , x > 0} the set of real numbers the set of positive real numbers, {xx ∈ + , x > 0} the set of complex numbers, {a + iba, b ∈ } −1 i z a complex number z* the complex number conjugate of z z the modulus of z arg z the argument of z Re z the real part of z Im z the imaginary part of z { x1 , x2 , ...} the set with elements x1 , x2 , ... n( A) the number of elements in the finite set A {x | } the set of all x such that ∈ is an element of ∉ is not an element of ∅ the empty (null) set U the universal set ∪ union ∩ intersection ⊂ is a proper subset of ⊆ is a subset of 6 A′ the complement of the set A A×B the Cartesian product of sets A and B (that is, A × B = {(a, b)a ∈ A, b ∈ B}) a|b a divides b a1/ n , n a a to the power of (if a ≥ 0 then a1/ 2 , a a to the power n 1 th , n root of a n a ≥0) 1 , square root of a 2 (if a ≥ 0 then a ≥ 0 ) x the modulus or absolute value of x, x for x ≥ 0, x ∈ R that is − x for x < 0, x ∈ R ≡ identity ≈ is approximately equal to > is greater than ≥ is greater than or equal to < is less than ≤ is less than or equal to > / is not greater than < / is not less than [a, b] the closed interval a ≤ x ≤ b a, b[ the open interval a < x < b un the n th term of a sequence or series d the common difference of an arithmetic sequence r the common ratio of a geometric sequence Sn the sum of the first n terms of a sequence, u1 + u2 + ... + un S∞ the sum to infinity of a sequence, u1 + u2 + ... 7 n ∑u u1 + u2 + ... + un i i =1 n ∏u u1 × u2 × ... × un n r n! r!(n − r )! f :A→ B f is a function under which each element of set A has an image in set B f :xa y f is a function under which x is mapped to y i i =1 f ( x) the image of x under the function f f −1 the inverse function of the function f f og the composite function of f and g lim f ( x) the limit of f ( x) as x tends to a dy dx the derivative of y with respect to x f ′( x) the derivative of f ( x) with respect to x d2 y dx 2 the second derivative of y with respect to x f ″ ( x) the second derivative of f (x) with respect to x dn y dx n the nth derivative of y with respect to x f (n) (x) the nth derivative of f ( x) with respect to x ∫ y dx the indefinite...
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## This note was uploaded on 06/24/2013 for the course HISTORY exam taught by Professor Apple during the Fall '13 term at Berlin Brothersvalley Shs.

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