AMDGHaigh, Athan12/11/080 Period APUSH Mr. YapThe Furnace of Civil War: Chapter 21Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War”-Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 militiamen on April 15, 1861, he anticipated a fast war lasting 90 days, with a quick control of the South to prove the North’s superiority -On July 21, 1861, poorly trained Yankee recruits strut out toward Bull Run to engage asmaller Confederate unit. They expected one big battle and a quick victory for the war. oThe mood was like a sporting event,as spectators gathered in picnics to watch.oAfter first success by the Union, Confederate reinforcements arrived and, joinedwith Stonewall Jackson’s line holding, sent the Union soldiers into disorder.-The Battle of Bull Run showed the North that this would not be a short, easy war andswelled the South’s already too-large ego.“Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign-Command of the Army of the Potomacwas given to 34 year old General George B.McClellan, an excellent drillmaster and organizer of troops, but also a perfectionist who constantly believed that he was outnumbered, never took risks, and held the army without moving for months before finally ordered by Lincoln to advance.-At Lincoln’s urging, he finally decided upon a water approach to Richmond(the South’s capital), called the Peninsula Campaign, taking about a month to capture Yorktown before coming to Richmond. oPresident Lincoln took McClellan’s expected reinforcements and sent themchasing Stonewall Jackson, and after “Jeb” Stuart’s Confederatecavalry rode completely around McClellan’s army, Southern General Robert E. Lee launched adevastating counterattack—the Seven Days’ Battles—on June 26 to July 2 of1862.-The victory at Bull Run ensured that the South, if it lost, would lose slavery as well, and it was after this battle thatLincoln began to draft an emancipation proclamation.-With the quick-strike plan a failure, the Union strategy now turned to total war. The plan was to blockade, divide, and conquer. -The Union plan :oSuffocate the South through an oceanic blockade.oFree the slavesto undermine the South’s very economic foundations.oCut the Confederacy in halfby seizing control of the Mississippi River.oChop the Confederacy to pieces by marching through Georgia and the Carolinas.oCapture its capital, Richmond, Virginia.oTry everywhere to engage the enemy’s main strength and grind it to submission.This was essentially General Winfield Scott’s “Anaconda Plan.”The War at Sea-The Union blockade started with many problems at first, but it was secured down later.