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bio2ch4 - Chapter 4 Cells The Basic Units of Life 1 Cells a...

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Chapter 4 Cells: The Basic Units of Life 1) Cells a) The basic unit of life b) Lowest structural level in which all life’s properties occur c) Robert Hooke names cells in 1665 d) Unicellular organisms i) Bacteria, amoeba, paramecium e) Multicellular organisms i) Animals, plants, and fungi 2) The Cell Theory a) Cells are the fundamental unit of life b) All organisms are composed of cells c) All cells come from preexisting cells 3) Cell Size a) Cell size is dependent on the surface area to volume ratio b) Volume – chemical activity c) Surface area – substances entering and exiting the cell d) Large organisms consist of many small cells 4) Microscopes are used to see cells a) Most cells are too small to see with the naked eye b) Resolution is the distance apart two objects must be in order for them to be distinguished as separate i) Human eye = 0.2 mm c) Microscopes are used to improve resolution 5) Types of Microscopes a) Light microscope i) Uses visible light and glass lenses to magnify an object ii) Resolving power is 1,000X that of the human eye b) Electron microscopes i) Uses magnets to focus an electron beam ii) Resolving power is 400,000 times that of the human eye 6) Two Classes of Cells a) Prokaryotic i) Bacteria and Archaea ii) No membrane-enclosed internal compartments iii) Similar to first cells to form b) Eukaryotic i) Protists, plants, fungi, and animals ii) Contain membrane enclosed compartments 7) Prokaryotic Cells a) Smaller than eukaryotic cells b) Single celled
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c) All have specific features i) Have plasma membrane ii) Hereditary material is held in the nucleoid d) Plasma membrane surrounds the cell e) Cytoplasm has two parts: i) Cytosol ii) Insoluble particles f) Cell wall i) Contains peptidoglycan ii) Provides support iii) Determines shape iv) Outer membrane g) Capsule i)
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