Generaltypesoflearningcircumstancesin

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Unformatted text preview: anism escape  learnstomakeaparticularresponsein conditioning ordertoterminateanaversivestimulus      PositiveandNegative Reinforcers   avoidance conditioning      atypeoflearninginwhichanorganism respondstoasignalinawaythatavoids exposuretoanaversivestimulus 12 10/1/2012 Shaping shaping theprocessofreinforcing responsesthatcome successivelyclosertothe desiredresponse Shaping http://www.karawynn.net/mishacat/toilet.html SecondaryReinforcement primary reinforces reinforcesthatmeetan suchasfoodandwater 13 10/1/2012 SecondaryReinforcement secondary reinforcers arewardthatpeopleand animalslearntolike SchedulesofReinforcement determinewhichoccurrenceofaspecificresponse resultsinthepresentationofareinforcer    continuous reinforcementschedule apatterninwhichareinforceris deliveredeverytimeaparticular responseoccurs  SchedulesofReinforcement   partialreinforcement schedule apatterninwhichareinforceis administeredonlysomeofthe timeafteraparticularresponse occurs 14 10/1/2012 SchedulesofReinforcement   ratioschedule basedonnumberof responses SchedulesofReinforcement  intervalschedule basedontimethathas elapsedsincethelast reinforcer SchedulesofReinforcement numberofresponsesorthetime elapserequiredfordeliveryof reinforcersisfixedorvariable fixed ­ratio(FR)schedule variable ­ratio(VR)schedule fixed ­interval(FI)schedule variable ­interval(VI)schedule   15 10/1/2012 SchedulesofReinforcement fixed ­ratio(FR) schedule apartialreinforcement schedulethatprovides reinforcementfollowinga fixednumberof responses SchedulesofReinforcement variable ­ratio(VR) schedule apartialreinforcement schedulethatprovides reinforcementaftera varyingnumberof responses SchedulesofReinforcement fixed ­interval(FI) schedule apartialreinforcement schedulethatprovides reinforcementforthefirst responsethatoccursafter somefixedtimehaspassed sincethelastreward 16 10/1/2012 SchedulesofReinforcement variable ­interval (VI)schedule apartialreinforcement schedulethatprovides reinforcementforthefirst responseaftersomevarying oftime SchedulesofReinforcement  Steeperlines meanhigher responserates Ratioschedules producehigher responserates thaninterval schedules Punishment  thepresentationofanaversive punishment stimulusortheremovalofa pleasantstimulus theeventdecreasesthe probabilitythataresponsewill berepeated 17 10/1/2012 Punishment  Drawbacks:  producesunwantedeffects oftenineffective physicalpunishmentcanbecome aggressionandevenabuseifadministered inanger signalinappropriatebehavior;doesnot specifywhatshouldbedoneinstead    ObservationalLearning observational learning modeling learningbyobserving others theprocessofobserving andimitatingaspecific behavior  ComparingReinforcementandPunishment  18...
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