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PHRM 220 - Notes for the 2nd Exam

PHRM 220 - Notes for the 2nd Exam - February 14th 2005 1...

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February 14 th 2005 1) Nicotine and Smoking a) Nicotine is a compound that is found in tobacco smoke b) Tobacco comes from the plant Nicotiana Tobacum , which is related to the belladonna plants, whose therapeutic compound of any significance are related to atropine i) This plant is indigenous to North America, as well as other various parts of the world as well ii) This is the 7 th largest crop in the United States, which is indicative of the fact that there is a lot of financial incentives in the tobacco industry (1) Cigarette smoking has decreased in the past couple of decades, but this is still a thriving industry iii) Cigarette leaves are aged to bring out the aroma associated with cigarettes iv) The cigarette leaves are blended together and processed through the addition of additives in order to: (1) Retain moisture (2) Enhance the flavor (3) Enhance the bioavailability of nicotine c) There are 4000 compounds present in cigarette smoke and particulate materials i) The compounds found in cigarettes are also involved in paralysis as well ii) Nicotine has cardiovascular and behavior effects, and it has the potential to cause diseases as well (1) This compound was isolated as an alkaloid in 1828 (2) It is naturally a colorless liquid, but becomes brown when it is exposed to the atmosphere (3) This is the compound that contributes to the infamous cigarette aroma (4) There is 10mg of nicotine present in one cigarette (5) Nicotine is composed of mainly lipids, which gives it the ability to readily cross all cellular membranes (a) Nicotine could cross through unbroken skin by absorption (i) Agriculture poisoning, such as Black Leaf 40, can occur if an insecticide, composed of 40% nicotine sulfate, is sprayed on you by the absorption of nicotine through the skin (b) Nicotine can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract if it is ingested (i) Usually the ingested tobacco would be thrown up, but there are instances where this does not occur (c) Smokeless tobacco infiltrates the oral cavity (d) The inhalation of smoke affects the lungs (6) The distribution of nicotine occurs very quickly (a) For example, it is able to cross the placenta barrier in a matter of 10 seconds (7) Most of the nicotinic metabolism will occur in the liver and there are cases where it has occurred in the lungs as well (a) Nicotine is eliminated through the urine and the milk of nursing mothers
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(8) The half-life is important because it is an indication of the frequency of the habit (9) Nicotine has the ability to relax you through the activation of a calming effect that is dependent on the rapidity and depths of each puff (a) A shallow and infrequent puffing results in the activation of this effect (b) There is a difference between men and women in that women tend to smoke less and take less deep breaths
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PHRM 220 - Notes for the 2nd Exam - February 14th 2005 1...

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