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1884 freud and koller cocaine not used often not 8

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Unformatted text preview: ler, Cocaine not used often not 8 Injectable Local Anesthesia Injectable Amides Lidocaine (Xylocaine) Bupivacaine (Marcaine,Sensorcaine) Mepivacaine (Carbocaine, Polocaine) Esters Procaine (Novocain) Dentists; always ask to make sure you haven’t Dentists; had a previous reactions had Chloroprocaine (Nescaine) Tetracaine (Pontocaine) 9 Local Anesthesia Local pain relief without causing generalized pain depression of the CNS depression should be injected slowly choice of drug depends on reason for use must not be injected into blood vessels local anesthetics given during labor local can cross the placenta can epinephrine is often added to local epinephrine anesthesia to prolong effects and decrease bleeding decrease – Potent vasoconstrictor 10 Local Anesthesia Local Nursing Implications may need to numb area before giving drug assess for allergic reactions read labels do not apply more often than directed viscous lidocaine follow instructions—swish & spit use drug preparation only on part of body for which use it is prescribed it clean areas before using use only for short period of time report if motor function and sensation fail to report return following the procedure return teach home care following the procedure discard lidocaine patches safely 11 Conscious Sedation Conscious Allows patients to tolerate unpleasant Allows diagnostic or therapeutic procedures by relieving anxiety and pain. relieving Usually done with IV benzodiazepines or Usually propofol (Diprivan). propofol – Propofol = milky white liquid Patient should be NPO and may be given Patient supplemental oxygen. supplemental Experienced anesthesia provider 12 General Anesthetics General 13 General Anesthetics General General anesthesia typically involves General IV induction and inhalation maintenance. maintenance. State of profound CNS depression. Complete loss of sensation, Complete consciousness, pain perception, and memory. memory. Usually induced with a fast-acting Usually drug(IV) and maintained with a gas mixture of an anesthetic agent and oxygen. oxygen. During period when patient is emerging During from anesthesia neither IV or inhaled anesthetics provide residual analgesia. anesthetics 14 Balanced Anesthesia Balanced Balanced anesthesia, a combination of drugs, Balanced is frequently used in general anesthesia to achieve analgesia, muscle relaxation, unconsciousness, and amnesia---generally includes the following: includes A. short acting barbiturate short B. premedication---usually a narcotic analgesic B. premedication---usually and an anticholinergic and C. sodium pentothal D. inhaled gas such as nitrous oxide and oxygen E. Neuromuscular blocking agent---a muscle E. relaxant as needed relaxant 15 Stages of Anesthesia Stages Stage I Analgesia---begins with consciousness and ends with loss of consciousness. and Stage II Excitement or delirium---produces a loss of consciousness caused by depression of the cerebral cortex. cerebral Stage III Surgical procedure performed duri...
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