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this stage---anesthesia deepens.
Stage IV--- Medullary Paralysis---respirations are
--lost and circulatory collapse occurs and ventilatory
assistance is necessary.
16 Inhaled Anesthetics
Florane---high safety profile.
Suprane---rapid induction at low doses
Nitrous Oxide---(gas) low potency and
limited to minor surgical procedures or in
combination with IV anesthetic agents.
17 Characteristics of Inhalation
6. Classified as gases or volatile liquids.
Rapidly absorbed from alveoli into general
Are complete anesthetics and thus can abolish
superficial and deep reflexes.
Provide controllable anesthesia because the
depth of anesthesia is easily varied by changing
the inhaled concentration.
Allergic reactions are uncommon.
Rapid recovery can occur as soon as
administration ceases because the anesthetic is
excreted in expired air.
excreted Inhaled Anesthetics
Mechanism of Action---enhancing transmission at inhibitory
synapses & depressing transmission of excitatory synapses--depressing
interacts with multiple receptors in the brain---iinhibits
neurotransmitters that activate the RAS---easily cross the BBB.
Pharmacokinetics---effective concentrations depend on
pressure of the gas sufficient to suppress neuronal excitability.
Uses---anesthesia to produce unconsciousness, skeletal
muscle relaxation, visceral smooth muscle relaxation for
Adverse Reactions---(dose dependent) hypotension,
circulatory depression, respiratory depression, shivering,
nausea & vomiting, larynospasm.
19 Nursing Interventions for a
Client Receiving Inhalation
Assess for pain and administer pain medication as
needed (remember that any sedative or analgesic
used must be decreased to one half to one fourth of
usual dose for first dose after surgery).
Avoid heat loss by using heated blankets, covering
the client’s head with a blanket, and using a
Monitor vital signs & LOC closely.
20 Intravenous Anesthetics
4. Used for the induction or maintenance of general
anesthesia, and to promote amnesia
Supplements to general surgery that help patients
rapidly progress through Stages 1& 2
May be used alone.
Allows the dose of the inhaled anesthetic to be
Opioids---Sublimaze, Sufenta, Fentanyl
Other Agents---Ketalar, Diprivan
Other 21 Intravenous Anesthetics
Mechanism of Action---ultra-short acting dr...
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- Fall '13