Respiratory Tract Drugs(2)

Antagonists histamine mechanism of action block h 1

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Unformatted text preview: n block H-1 receptors block action of histamine more effective in preventing the actions of histamine than reversing them once they have taken place Take every day 13 Histamine Antagonists Histamine Uses decrease discomfort in acute allergic reactions that involve the upper respiratory tract reduce swelling and itching relieve symptoms of a cold relieve allergic rhinitis allergic symptoms sleeping aids/insomnia prevent nausea and vomiting/motion sickness prevent tremors/PD 14 Histamine Antagonists Histamine Adverse Reactions (anticholinergic) dry mouth blurred vision urinary retention tachycardia constipation insomnia tremors Sedation/drowsiness most common Elderly are at greater risk 15 Histamine Antagonists Histamine Nursing Implications monitor vital signs avoid driving or using hazardous equipment take with meals or snacks to decrease GI distress increase fluids to decrease effects of dry mouth and constipation take regularly if being used to manage allergies avoid use of alcohol/additive effects can cause drowsiness instruct patient to read labels of OTC’s generally contraindicated in narrow-angle glaucoma, BPH, pregnancy, bladder neck obstruction, and peptic ulcer disease If using for motion sickness take 30-60 minutes before travel 16 Intranasal Glucocorticoids Intranasal Most effective for treatment and Most prevention of rhinitis prevention Mild adverse effects – Drying of nasal mucosa or sore throat – Rarely, systemic effects (adrenal suppression Rarely, and slowing of linear pediatric growth) and 17 18 18 Intranasal Cromolyn Intranasal Trade name: NasalCrom – Extremely safe, but only moderately effective – Suppresses release of histamines from mast Suppresses cells cells – Best used for prophylaxis, not for treatment – Response may take 1-2 weeks to develop 19 Sympathomimetics (Oral/Nasal) Sympathomimetics (AKA Decongestants) Reduce nasal congestion (do not reduce Reduce rhinorrhea, sneezing, or itching) rhinorrhea, Activate alpha1-adrenergic receptors on -adrenergic nasal blood vessels nasal – Vasoconstricts sinuses Adverse effects – Rebound congestion – CNS stimulation – Cardiovascular effects and stroke – Abuse 20 Sympathomimetics (Oral/Nasal) Sympathomimetics (AKA Decongestants) Factors in topical administration – Should not use more than 5 consecutive days – Drops versus sprays Phenylephrine, ephedrine, Phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine pseudoephedrine Antihistamine-sympathetic combinations – Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) – Montelukast (Singulair) – Omalizumab (Xolair) 21 22 22 Drugs for Cough Drugs Antitussives – Drugs that suppress cough – Opioid antitussives Codeine and hydrocodone – Respiratory depression, constipation – Nonopioid antitussives Dextromethorphan Diphenhydramine – Aka benadryll 23 Common Cold Common Acute upper respiratory viral infection Rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, Rhinorrhea, sneeze, sore throat, headache, hoarseness, malaise, myalgia hoarseness, Fever common in ki...
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