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Unformatted text preview: ds, rare in adults
Self-limited and usually benign
No cure – just treatment of symptoms 24 OTC Cold Remedies
Combination cold remedies usually
contain two or more of the following: – Nasal decongestant
– Antihistamine (for cholinergic actions)
– Caffeine (to offset effect of antihistamine) 25 Pediatric OTC Cold Remedies
Use with caution in young children
– No proof of efficacy or safety – proof of harm
– Avoid OTC cold remedies in children under 2
years of age
– Only use products labeled for pediatric use
– Consult a healthcare professional before giving to
– Read all product safety information before dosing
– Use the measuring device provided with the
– Discontinue the medicine and seek professional
care if the child’s condition worsens
care Drugs for Asthma
Drugs 27 Pathophysiology---Asthma
Asthma is defined as recurrent reversible chronic
Asthmatic attack comprises wheezing, cough and difficulty
breathing out, chest tightness
Airway resistance is increased and narrowing of the
Includes constriction of the bronchioles, edema of
bronchial mucosa, and accumulation of mucus.
Severe attacks are life threatening.
Characteristic features include inflammatory changes in
the airway and abnormal sensitivity to stimuli.
Symptoms of asthma result from a combination of
inflammation and bronchoconstriction, so treatment
must address both components.
29 Goal of Asthma Therapy
Terminate acute bronchospasm
Prevent or reduce the frequency of asthma
attacks. Classes: quick relief medications and long term
The choice of medications is determined by
evidence-based guidelines along with patient
30 Overview of Drugs for
Two main pharmacologic classes:
– Anti-inflammatory agents
Glucocorticoids (prednisone) – Bronchodilators Beta2 agonists (albuterol) 31 Overview of the effects of various
antiasthmatic 32 Inhalation Drug Therapy
Three obvious advantages: – Therapeutic effects are enhanced
– Systemic effects are minimized
– Relief of acute attacks is rapid Three types: – Metered-dose inhalers (MDIs)
– Dry-powder inhalers (DPIs)
– Nebulizers 33 Administration of Inhaled Drugs
Aerosol therapy promotes:
Bronchodilation and pulmonary decongestion
Loosening of secretions
Topical application of corticosteroids and
other Moistening, cooling, or heating of inspired air 34 Impact of a spacer device on the distribution of inhaled medication.
Note that, when a spacer is used, more medication reaches its site of action in the lungs,
less is deposited in the mouth and thro...
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This document was uploaded on 09/11/2013.
- Fall '13