Course Hero Logo

Chapter_21_-_The_Ordeal_of_Reconstruction - Chapter 21 -...

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.

Chapter 21 - The Ordeal of Reconstruction NotesJanuary 24, 2021The Problems of PeaceAll rebel (Confederate) leaders were pardoned by President Johnson in 1868. After the war,Southern people continued to believe that their view of secession was correct.Freedmen Define FreedomEmancipation took effect unevenly in different parts of the conquered Confederacy.Some slavesresisted the liberating Union armies due to their loyalty to their masters.The church became the focus of black community life in the years following emancipation.Blacks formed their own churches pastured by their own ministers, and they had an opportunityfor education. Blacks could now learn to read and write.The Freedmen's BureauBecause many freedmen (people who were freed from slavery) were unskilled, without propertyor money, and had little knowledge of how to survive as free people, Congress created theFreedmen's Bureauon March 3,1865.It provided clothing, medical care, food, and educationto both freedmen and white refugees.Union general Oliver O. Howardled the bureau.Thebureau's greatest success was teaching blacks to read.Because it was despised by the Presidentand by Southerners, theFreedmen's Bureau expired in1872.Johnson: The Tailor PresidentWhen Andrew Johnsonwas in Congress, he refused to secede with his own state of Tennessee.Johnson was listed as the Vice President on Lincoln's 1864 election ticket to gain support fromthe War Democrats and other pro-Southern elements.Johnson was a strong supporter of state'srights and of the Constitution.He was a Southerner who did not understand the North and aDemocrat who had not been accepted by the Republicans.Presidential ReconstructionIn1863, Lincoln released his "10 percent"Reconstructionplanwhich dictated that a statecould be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the presidential election of 1860had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation.Then,a formal state government would be constructed within the state, and the state would be re-admitted into the Union.Due to Republican fears over the restoration of planter aristocracy and the possible re-enslavement of blacks, Congress passed theWade-Davis Billin1864.It required that 50% of astate's voters take the oath of allegiance and it demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation.President Lincoln refused to sign the bill.The disagreement between the President and Congress revealed differences in Republicans andtwo factionsarose within the party:amajoritythat agreed with Lincoln and believed that the
seceded states should be restored to the Union as quickly as possible, and a radicalminoritythatfelt the South should suffer greatly before its re-admittance - this minority wanted the South'ssocial structure to be uprooted, the planters to be punished, and the newly-emancipated blacks tobe protected by federal power.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 6 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
Wendy Neil
Tags
Emancipation Proclamation, American Civil War, Southern United States, Reconstruction era of the United States, U S Congress, President Johnson

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture