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It was completed in 1956 edvac was still a carousal

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Unformatted text preview: in 1956, EDVAC was still a carousal machine When with 4,000 vacuum tubes and 10,000 crystal diodes. with Although most of these activities were taking place in USA, there were Although other efforts in other countries. For example, around the time EDVAC was being developed, there was an experiment at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom also based on the stored program concept. By 1948, the Manchester team had produced a machine working with 32 words of memory and a 5-instruction set. Still in England, at Cambridge University, the electronic delay storage automatic calculator- EDSAC was produced in 1949. Across the Atlantic in 1948, the universal automatic computer – UNIVAC I, became the first commercially available computer. From that point, the general purpose computer took on a momentum of its own. They become bigger and more powerful. Companies sprang up both in US and Europe to manufacture these wonder machines. Among the leaders were: International Business Machines (IBM), Honeywell, and Control Data Corporation (CDC) in the USA, and International Computers Limited, (ICL) in UK. These companies and a number of others, built what came to be known as the mainframe, huge computers mainframe huge that consisted of a 4 to 5 feet by 8 feet tape drives, a huge control processing unit, a huge printer, several huge fixed disks, a large card reader and a paper punch. These components usually filled a large room or two. Because these computers were big, expensive, and difficult to use – computers users could only use the computers through a computer operator. The computer operator fed jobs to the computer via a card or tape reader. The jobs were submitted to the card reader as decks of punched cards. Because of the fact that these computers were big, expensive and difficult to use, only large companies and Around mid to late sixties, a movement to make computers less expensive and more affordable started gathering momentum. This movement led to a number of developments. First it led to the manufacture of a less expensive but smaller computer – the medium range computer commonly referred to as minicomputer. minicomputer. Secondly, it started a mode of computing that later led to networking. This was the timesharing, where, one computer could be used by a number of users who would remotely connect on to the mainframe. Third and most important, it led to a milestone in the history of computing. This milestone occurred between 1971 and 1976. This was the development of the first microprocessor. A microprocessor is an integrated circuit with many transistors on a single board. Before the birth of the microprocessor, computer technology had developed to a point that vacuum tubes and diodes were no longer used. Computers were now constructed from thousands of transistors. The demand for more powerful computers, necessitated the development of computers with many thousands of transistors. But it was not possible at the time to simply pack m...
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