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Unformatted text preview: o incorporate the
host-to-host protocol into ARPNET. The first host-to-host
protocol called Network Control Protocol (NCP) was
developed by the Network Working Group (NWG) in
1970. But NCP did not have “the ability to address
networks further downstream than a destination IMP on
the ARPNET” .
Kahn then developed what later became the
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
As the number of nodes increased, more universities
joined the exclusive club, and APRANET became not
only a research facilitator, but it also became a free
federally funded postal system of electronic mail. In 1984, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)
joined ARPANET in starting its own network code named
NSFNET. NSFNET set a new pace in nodes, bandwidth,
speed and upgrades.
This NSF funded network brought the Internet in the
reach of many universities throughout the USA and
internationally that would not otherwise afford the costs,
and many government agencies joined in. At this point
other countries and regions were establishing their own
With so much success and fanfare, ARPANET ceased
to exist in 1989.
As the number of nodes on the Internet climbed into
hundreds of thousands worldwide, the role of sponsoring
agencies like ARPA and NSF became more and more
marginalized. Eventually in 1994 NSF also ceased its
support of the Internet. The Internet by now needed no
helping hand since it had assumed a momentum of its
own. The Development of the World
The World Wide Web, as we know it today, had its humble beginning from
concepts contained in Tim Berners-Lee’s 1989 proposal to physicists calling
Berners-Lee, a physicist researcher at the European High-Energy Particle
Physics lab- the Conseil Europeenne pour la Recherché Nucleaire (CERN),
Switzerland, wrote the proposal called HyperText and CERN, to enable
collaboration between physicists and other researchers in the high energy
physics research community.
Three new technologies were incorporated. They were: HyperText Markup
Language (HTML) based on the hypertext concepts- to be used to write web
documents, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) a protocol to be used to
transmit web pages between hosts, and a web browser client software
program to receive and interpret data and display results.
His proposal also included a very important concept for the user interface.
This browser supported interface was based on the concept that it would be
consistent across all types of computer platforms to enable users to access
information from any computer. The line-mode interface was developed and
named at CERN in late 1989 and it came to be known as the world wide web
www By 1991, the concept developed only two years
back was put into practice on a limited network
at CERN. From the central computer at CERN
with few web pages, the number of servers
started to grow from the only one at CERN in
1991, to 50 world wide by 1992, to 720,000 by...
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2013 for the course SCI 2234 taught by Professor Harding during the Fall '12 term at Columbia College.
- Fall '12