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and create a working, more powerful computer, a way forward had
to be found. The Development of the
The way forward was found by Ted Hoff. Hoff designed
the world’s first microprocessor, the 4004. The fours in
4004, indicated that the device had a 4-bit data path.
The 4004 microprocessor was a four-chip system
consisting of 256-byte ROM, a 32-bit RAM, 4-bit data
path, and 10-bit shift register. It used 2,300 transistors
to execute 60,000 operations per second, a top speed at
the time .
The development of the first microprocessor caught the
world off guard. Even Biscom, the company that had
commissioned Hoff, did not understand the potential of
the 4004. So they requested him to design the twelvethe
chip set they hard originally wanted him to design .
chip In 1972, Intel, designed and introduced the 8008, an 8-bit
microprocessor based on the 4004.
The 8008 was historic in its own right in that it was the first
microprocessor to use a compiler, a system program that interprets
user inputs into machine code and machine code to system outputs
understandable by the user. The 8008 supported the compiler called
PL/M. Both the 4004 and the 8008 were specific application
The truly general purpose microprocessor come out in 1974. It was
the 8080, an 8-bit device with 4,500 transistors and packing an
astonishing 200,000 operations per second.
From 1974, the development of microprocessors exploded as
companies like Motorala developed the 6800 in 1974, MOS
Technology developed the 6502 in 1975, and Zilog developed the
Z80 in 1976. Since then, many new companies have sprung up and
the speed, density of transistors, and functionality of
microprocessors has been on the rise.
. Historical Development of
Computer Software and Personal
Up until mid 1970s, the development of computing science was led by hardware.
Computers were designed and software was designed to fit the hardware.
The development of software to run the computers was in the hands of the
companies that designed the hardware.
The break from this routine came from two fronts: 1976 when the Apple I and Apple II
microcomputer were unveiled, and 1981 when IBM joined the PC wars.
These two developments started a new industry, the personal computing industry.
Perhaps the PC industry may not have been the way it is today, were it not the
development of the personal computer operating system (OS).
The history of the development of the PC operating system, hence the birth of the
PC industry, involved three players: IBM, Gary Kildall, the fellow who developed
CP/M, the PC operating system many believe to be the first PC operating system,
and Bill Gates, the develop of the Disk Operating System (DOS).
The story, part legend, behind these players is the story of the beginning of the PC.
The legend has it that when IBM developed the personal computer based on Intel’s
8088 microprocessor, in 1981, IBM needed an oper...
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2013 for the course SCI 2234 taught by Professor Harding during the Fall '12 term at Columbia College.
- Fall '12