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Module 8 notes.pdf - Biology Notes Aryan Nataraja Module 8:...

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Biology NotesAryan Nataraja1Module 8: Non-infectious disease and disorderInquiry question:How is an organism’s internal environment maintained in response to a changingexternal environment?construct and interpret negative feedback loops that show homeostasis by using a range ofsources, including but not limited to: (ACSBL101, ACSBL110, ACSBL111)temperature (ACSBL098)glucoseHOMEOSTASIS: A state of balance or constancyHomeostasis is the self-regulating process by which an organism maintains a stable internalenvironment, despite fluctuating external environmental conditions.WHY HOMEOSTASIS MUST BE MAINTAINED:Metabolic efficiency relies on a constant level of the following variables in the internal environment:Temperature and pH for enzyme functioningWater and salt concentration, which determine the volume of cells or fluidAbsence of toxins that may inhibit enzyme functioning.MAINTENANCE OF HOMEOSTASIS:Homeostasis is controlled by thenervous systemand theendocrine system (hormones)Variables such as glucose are maintained in a narrow rangetolerance limitVariables have an ideal/normal value known as the set pointHomeostasis is maintained as long as variables remains within the upper and lower boundariesoIf fluctuation exceeds boundaries, mechanisms come into action to return the body tonormal range
Biology NotesAryan Nataraja2THE NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP:Negative feedback loop is the process through which the body returns to a stable point after beingaltered by a variable.Homeostasis is brought about in 2 main stages:1.Detecting Change:Sensory cells or receptors detect change in the internal environmente.g.temperature.a.This change in the internal environment is called theSTIMULS2.Counteracting the change:A response occur that will reverse the changea.Response is brought about by effector organs (muscles or glands) and will restore thebody to it normal internal stateWHAT NEGATIVE FEEDBACK INVOLVES:TERMDEFINITIONStimulusChange in the environmentthe disturbanceReceptorDetects the changeControl centreControls the responseEffectorReceives message andcarries out the responseSTIMULUS-RESPONSE PATHWAY:The function of the nervous system is to coordinate homeostasis.Involves 3 steps1.Detects information about animals internal and external environment2.Transmits this information to a control centre3.Information is processed, generating a response carried out by effector organs to maintainconstant internal stateStructure involved in the nervous system:Receptors, control centre, effectors, nerves (relay messages through electrical impulses)
Biology NotesAryan Nataraja3COORDINATION OF THE HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISM:Negative feedback system is coordinated by:Nervous systemcommunicates within the body by relaying information through nervousimpulses.

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