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9 - In the next ten years Canadas mineral resources...

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1 In the next ten years, Canada’s mineral resources industry will require up to 80,000 new employees 25 to 40% of current workers plan to retire within 10 years Student enrolment in geology-oriented university programs is well below the minimum required to replace the workforce Mining to meet Consumption Rates In North America, each person uses about 20,000 kg / yr of crushed rock, cement, sand and gravel, fertilizer, oil, coal, metals, and other mined commodities For the world as a whole, the consumption rate is about 9,000 kg / yr (per person) About 54 billion tonnes of material is dug out of the Earth and used each year Canadian Mine Production by Commodity
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2 Mineral Resources and Human History Evidence of mining of flint , chert , and obsidian for tools more than 160,000 years ago Metals were first used more than 20,000 years ago native copper and gold were the earliest metals used 6,000 years ago, copper was first extracted by smelting of sulphide ores 5,000 years ago smelting of lead , tin , zinc , silver , and other metals began 4,000 years ago, the technique of mixing metals to make alloys was developed bronze composed of copper and tin pewter composed of tin, lead, and copper 3,000 years ago, the smelting of iron ore was introduced at about the same time, the first use of coal instead of wood was introduced by the Chinese Mineral Resources and Human History Useful Metals Most useful metals in the crust are geochemically scarce They are present at concentrations of < 0.1 wt% Most occur as atomic substitutions in more abundant rock-forming minerals Atoms of the metals such as nickel, cobalt, and copper substitute for more common atoms in rock- forming minerals (such as magnesium and calcium)
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3 What are they used for? nuclear control rods Hf batteries, plating, plastics stabilizer Cd thin films for LCDs In superalloys (turbine engines) Co whitener, ceramic flux, fertilizer K corrosion resistant steel Cr electrical switches Hg non-toxic replacement for Pb Bi semiconductors, transistors, optics Ge high melting point applications Be lasers, light-emitting diodes (GaAs) Ga borosilicate glass B chemical industry (HF acid) F heavy cement, drilling mud Ba diamond (jewelry, abrasive, cutting) C hardener in batteries (preservative) As wire Cu aluminum (construction, wire) Al electronics (highly electropositive) Cs photosensitive application Ag ... but there is more alloy with aluminum V electro-optical devices RE catalyst, metal hardener W sulfuric acid, cosmetics S galvanized steel, rubber Zn flame retardant, hardener in batteries Sb refractory in ceramics Zr photoconductor in photocopiers Se nuclear fuel U catalyst for producing Pb-free fuel Re white pigment in paper, paint Ti catalytic converters Pt radiation detection, infrared sensor Tl batteries, ceramics Pb high-T ceramics Th stainless steel Ni semiconductors, solar cells Te superalloys (heat-resistant) Nb capacitors (cell phones) Ta hardening for high-stress steel Mo glass for TV tubes Sr steel Mn Ore Minerals
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