mcb 150 semester outline - MCB 150 1. Linnean system of...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Capsule Cell Wall Ribosomes Nucleoid Plasma Membrane Golgi Apparatus Mitochondria Nucleus Lipid Bilayer Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Base Phosphate Sugar MCB 150 1. Linnean system of classification 1. Originated in the 1700’s 2. Based on physical characteristics 3. Described all known life as genus:species 4. Two basic types of cells were seen: 4.1.Eukaryotes – cells with a nucleus 4.1.1. Typical animal cell: 4.1.2. Cell interior divided into distinct compartments called organelles 4.2.Prokaryotes – cells without a nucleus 4.2.1. 4.3.Kernel=karyon=nucleus 5. Until around 1977, organisms were classified into two “superkingdoms” (eukaryotes and prokaryotes)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
6. Dr. Carl Woese (professor at UIUC) compared the genetic sequences in different species of molecules (small subunit ribosomal RNAs) 6.1.He used these ribosomal RNAs because they are 6.1.1. Evolutionarily ancient 6.1.2. Found in all organisms 6.1.3. Same function in all organisms 6.1.4. Highly conserved (evolve very slowly) 6.2.Prokaryotes were found to have two distinct types of organisms 6.2.1. Bacteria – true bacteria like E. coli and are found everywhere 6.2.2. Archae – “ancient,” found in extreme habitats that resemble early earth 6.3.Woese observed that archae rRNA sequences are more closely related to eukaryotic rRNA sequences than to bacterial ones 7. Horizontal Gene Transfer is the transfer of genes between two unrelated species that causes them to look as if they are more closely related than they actually are. 8. No two organisms are identical but are all made of one or more cells because life requires a structural compartment (a cell) separate from the external environment in which molecules can perform unique functions in a relatively constant internal environment. 9. Basic tenets of Cell Theory: 9.1.The cell is the fundamental unit of life 9.2.Every organism is composed of one or more cells 9.3.All cells come from pre-existing cells 10. Most cells are very small because of the ratio of surface area to volume of the cell 11. The Scale of Life 11.1. Resolution – the ability to distinguish between two different objects that are close to each other 11.2. Resolving power of light microscopes is ~0.2 microns (10 e -6)
Background image of page 2
11.3. Electron microscopy has resolution of ~0.5 nm (10 e -9) 11.3.1. Denser material absorbs more electrons and appears darker on SEMs 12. Some cells (plants, most prokaryotes) have a relatively rigid cell wall providing shape and protections 13. Every cell is surrounded by a Plasma Membrane 13.1. Allows cells to maintain a constant internal environment 13.2. Acts as a selectively permeable barrier 13.3. Is an interface for cells where information is received form adjacent cells and extracellular signals 13.4. Has molecules that are responsible for binding and adhering to adjacent cells Closer look at a type of bacteria: Closer look at a eukaryotic (animal cell):
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
13.5. Four major biological macromolecules: 13.5.1. Proteins
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course MCB 150 taught by Professor Mehrtens during the Spring '08 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

Page1 / 22

mcb 150 semester outline - MCB 150 1. Linnean system of...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online