Asia - Asia Japan, China, India Four Sub-Regions of Asia...

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Unformatted text preview: Asia Japan, China, India Four Sub-Regions of Asia Northeast Asia: China, Japan, Koreas, Russian Far East Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar/Burma, Singapore South Asia: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal Central Asia: anything ending in -stan High level of diversity Religious diversity: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Confucianism, Christianity Ethnic diversity Linguistic diversity (no history of common political/religious language like Latin or Arabic) Geographic diversity: mountains, jungles, deserts, savanna Enormous population (60% of world in Asia) Absence of democratic tradition Most civilizations/polities in area ruled by despotism (mostly hereditary autocracies) Several highly advanced civilizations China Hindu kingdoms in India Khmer empire in present-day Cambodia Region eclipsed by Europe and much of the area colonized by European powers Three faces of development in Asia Over-development (Japan, Singapore?) Overcrowding High levels of pollution Noise, ugliness Chronic traffic congestion 1/3 of population on 1% of land Three faces of development in Asia Medium/transitional development Taiwan South Korea Thailand (?) Malaysia (?) Indonesia (?) Rapid economic growth and social change over past twenty years, sometimes accompanied by political instability Three faces of development in Asia Underdevelopment Myanmar Laos Cambodia Vietnam Bangladesh Pakistan High infant mortality, lower life expectancy, low education levels, high dependence on agriculture Cultural and historical influences Primary civilizations: Chinese and Indian Chinese: writing, Confucianism as ethical system, organization of bureaucracy Influenced Japan, Korea, Vietnam Indian: Hindic influences spread throughout Southeast Asia; Buddhism founded in India, spread to China, Sri Lanka and SEA Political traditions Empire building : Chinese dynasties, Khmer empire (constructed Angkor Wat), Ashoka empire in India, Japan Dynastic authoritarianism : concentrated authority, dynast claims divine sanction (mandate of heaven, descent from sun-god, etc.) Power passed to male heirs State used to conscript and organize labor for large-scale projects (dams, temples, etc.) Advanced agricultural techniques Politics, cont. Patron-client relations Informal Based on personal ties such as friendship Particular (open only to select individuals Not based upon abstract values or abstract organizational ties Usually based upon village residency rather than cities (where ties developed through political parties, unions, other associations) Effects of colonialism Chinese exacted tribute from smaller states in region but otherwise did little to change forms of administration European colonialism either replaced or co- opted local rulers Britain: seized India, Pakistan, Burma, Sri...
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Asia - Asia Japan, China, India Four Sub-Regions of Asia...

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