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Unformatted text preview: nethnic grouphassharedinternalbeliefs Thingsthattheybondoridentify withoneanotheroveraspartof theirethnicheritage Therefore,thereareno trueraces,butthereARE differentethnicgroups  Professor L.M. Smolich Racevs. Ethnicity Historically,thistermcametobeassociatedwithrace and,includinglanguage,ledtotheideathatphysical and culturaltraitsarefused Ethnicityisbasedonperceiveddifferencesinancestral originordescent,andsharedhistoricalandcultural heritage itcreatesafeelingoffellowship Inreality,ethnicity couldbedistinguishedbylanguage, religion,skincolor,andsharedhistory  FactsAboutRace ThereisNOsingletrait,    characteristic,orgenethatdistinguishes allmembersof allmembers  Thus,thereisnopredictabilityintraits,soracedoesnot biologicallyexist Unlikemanyanimals,modernhumanshavenotbeen aroundlongenough(weareayoungspecies),norhave populationsbeenisolatedenough(toomuchgenetic mixingthroughsex),toevolveintoseparatesubspeciesor races(races,inmanyspecies,areconsideredtobesubspecies) Despitesurfacedifferences, weareamongstthemost similarofallspeciesontheplanet!!! 99.9%similarDNA SDSU Fall 2011 3 10/23/2011 Part II: Cell Biology through Race Lecture 12: Biological Anthropology and Race Lecture Topic Anthropology 101 DowecallthemRaces,Populations,orClines?  So,thenhowdoanthropologiststalk aboutdifferentpopulationsofpeople? Analternativetothe concept  Someusethewordrace, otherspreferpopulation,someclines  isthisjustsemantics?  Somegenemutationsarelinkedtocertainhumansubgroups,or races,ethnicgroups,orpopulations (below) CysticFibrosis MostcommonamongpeopleofEuropeanancestry(approx.1in25arecarriers  occurrencerateisabout1in2500children) Itlikelyofferedsomeprotectionagainstcholera,andsostayedinthepopulation LactoseIntolerance Mostmammalslosetheabilitytodigestmilkasadults(mutationabout4000BC to4500BCstartedpreventinglactosetolerance) thischromosomal mutationallowssomeadultstodigestit thosewithoutthemutation cannotdigestit MostpeopleofW.EurasianancestryCANdrinkmilk (mutationonchromosome2 allowsthemtocontinuetodrinkit) MostE.Eurasians,Sub SaharanAfricans,NativeAmericansandPacificIslanders arelactoseintolerant(cannotdrinkit) About70%ofALLpeoplecannottoleratelactoseasadults!!!! TaySachs AshkenaziJews:rightnow,approximately1in25arecarriers  Thegeneralpopulation:1in250arecarriers  GeographicalGradientsorClines Ratherthanraces,todayw...
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