Intro to Cellular Biology (7)

And g notethissectionexaminesthesequencing

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Unformatted text preview:  » Note:thissectionexaminesthesequencingofthegenome,andthe raceofdifferentcompanies(bothpublicandprivate)toseewhogets thehumangenome. » 1.Howmuchdohumansvaryintheirgeneticmakeup?How differentarewe,andwhatthingsaccountforthisdifference?  Part6(6:33) NOVAOnline|CrackingtheCodeofLife| http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/program.html  TurntotheEndofthePDFForQuestionsonPart6   » 2.Arehumansorchimpanzeesmoregeneticallydiverse?By howmuch?Andcomparedtohumans?Why?       » representallhumans?Explainwhythisisthecase. » NooneintheworldhasDNAthe sameasYOURS  Exceptmaybeanidenticaltwin » ThisiswhyDNAcanbesodefinitivein solvingcrimes onein7billionchancethatthisishis DNAfromthecrimescene because onlyonein7billionhavethatexact DNA e.g.Bloodsamplefromcrimescene comparedtopossiblesuspects » EventhoughDNAcanbesodifferent, itstillisnotdifferentenoughin humanstodesignateseparate races~ thereisonlyonerace 2 9/25/2011 » Codon=ThreebasesinaDNAor RNAsequencewhichspecifya singleaminoacid.  FromtheRNAstrandtotheright: (Todeterminetheaminoacid,matchupthe codonsonthenextpageonthechart)  Codon1(top3bases)=GCU=alanine  Codon2(next3bases) =ACG=threonine  Codon3(next3bases) =GAG=glutamicacid  etc.,fortherestofthecodonsuntilyou  » Aminoacidsarethebuilding  blocksofproteins  3basesinarowmakeacodonor aminoacid,andastringofamino acidsmakeproteinswhichhave variousjobstodointhebody(skip ahead fourslidesforspecifics) » Weutilize20aminoacids.Our bodiescreate 12ofthose,andthe other8weobtainthrough ourdiets. » Therecanbeerrorsinthemakingofproteins,justas therecanbe errorsinDNAreplicationand errorsinthecelldivisionprocess.  » Theyarethemaincomponentsof biologicalstructures » Theyareaseriesofchemical bases(e.g.nucleicacids)strung together  The followingwebsitemaybehelpfulifyouneed morehelpwithaminoacids/codons/proteins http://science.howstuffworks. com/dna4.htm 3 9/25/2011 Part1.Thegeneticcodeconsistsof3 ­base codonsthatspecifyparticularamino acids(e.g.CUUistheaminoacidleucine).The orderofthecodonsdesignatestheorderofthe aminoacids,whichdeterminestheprotein~ sameideawithDNA. 2.Theparticular sequenceofamino acids(fromthebases A,T,C,Gand/orU) inthechainiswhat makesoneprotein differentfrom another...
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